Middle

Creating Inclusive PreK–12 STEM Learning Environments

Brief CoverBroadening participation in PreK–12 STEM provides ALL students with STEM learning experiences that can prepare them for civic life and the workforce.

Author/Presenter: 
Malcom Butler
Cory Buxton
Odis Johnson Jr.
Leanne Ketterlin-Geller
Catherine McCulloch
Natalie Nielsen
Arthur Powell
Year: 
2018
Short Description: 

This brief offers insights from National Science Foundation-supported research for education leaders and policymakers who are broadening participation in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM). Many of these insights confirm knowledge that has been reported in research literature; however, some offer a different perspective on familiar challenges.

Beyond the Basics: A Detailed Conceptual Framework of Integrated STEM

Given the large variation in conceptualizations and enactment of K-12 integrated STEM, this paper puts forth a detailed conceptual framework for K-12 integrated STEM education that can be used by researchers, educators, and curriculum developers as a common vision.

Author/Presenter: 
Gillian H. Roehrig
Emily A. Dare
Joshua A. Ellis
Elizabeth Ring-Whalen
Year: 
2021
Short Description: 

This paper puts forth a detailed conceptual framework for K-12 integrated STEM education that can be used by researchers, educators, and curriculum developers as a common vision

EarSketch Workspace & Curriculum

EarSketch helps you learn core topics in computer science, music, and music technology in a fun, engaging environment. You learn to code in Python or JavaScript, two of the most popular programming languages in the world, while manipulating loops, composing beats, and applying effects to a multi-track digital audio workstation. To start learning to write code and make music, click the Start Coding button and use the integrated online curriculum.

Author/Presenter: 
EarSketch
Year: 
2018
Short Description: 

EarSketch helps you learn core topics in computer science, music, and music technology in a fun, engaging environment. You learn to code in Python or JavaScript, two of the most popular programming languages in the world, while manipulating loops, composing beats, and applying effects to a multi-track digital audio workstation. To start learning to write code and make music, click the Start Coding button and use the integrated online curriculum.

Preparing Science Teachers Through Practice-Based Teacher Education

This comprehensive volume advances a vision of teacher preparation programs focused on core practices supporting ambitious science instruction. The book advocates for collaborative learning and building a community of teacher educators that can collectively share and refine strategies, tools, and practices. 
 
Author/Presenter: 
David Stroupe
Karen Hammerness
Scott McDonald
Year: 
2020
Short Description: 

This comprehensive volume advances a vision of teacher preparation programs focused on core practices supporting ambitious science instruction. The book advocates for collaborative learning and building a community of teacher educators that can collectively share and refine strategies, tools, and practices. 

Classroom Observation Protocol

Lead Organization(s): 
Year: 
Short Description: 

The Classroom Argumentation Observation Protocol developed in LAMP measures teachers’ pedagogical practices in terms of teachers providing opportunities for students to engage in the mathematics learning experiences specified in the logic model. The protocol provides quantified scores for the types of claims a teacher uses, the explicitness of claims, the sophistication of the warranting, and the use of warrants and data. Open‑ended questions ask for the extent to which the observed lessons address LLAMA lesson objectives. LAMP established content validity of this protocol through an expert panel. At the onset of the LLAMA project, the protocol was revised. The primary revisions include (a) the inclusion of our recent understanding of generic example arguments (see Yopp and Ely, 2016 and Yopp, Ely, and Johnson‑Leung, 2016) and (b) asking about the percentage of students engaged in the classroom argumentation episode. The protocol was further revised during weekly Principal Investigator meetings and was piloted in Year 1. During Year 2, the research teams participated in an observation training to ensure interrater reliability among observers and maintain a codebook of decision rules pertaining to the coding of the observations. Minor modifications were made to the protocol during this training period. The team watched videos and scored the videos during multiple sessions and modified the rubric and wording accordingly, following those sessions.

 

Argument and Reasoning Assessment

Lead Organization(s): 
Year: 
2021
Short Description: 

The research team developed the Student Argument and Reasoning Assessment (SARA) to measure students’ abilities to construct viable arguments and critique others’ arguments. The SARA was originally developed and validated in the LAMP pilot study (NSF Award Number: 1317034). Items were developed by reviewing prior research on proof/proving (e.g. Healy & Hoyles, 2000; Knuth, 2002b), state assessments, and feedback from the external advisory board. The pretest assessment has 5 items: 4 items measure the ability to construct viable arguments, and 1 item assesses the ability to critique others’ arguments. Specifically Item 1 was designed to elicit a direct argument. Item 2 was designed to elicit an indirect argument or a direct argument. Item 3 was designed to elicit a counterexample argument, and Item 4 was designed to elicit an exhaustive argument. Item 5 was designed to assess students’ ability to see the generalization in a specific example and recognize that the structure in the example applied to all cases. These items address mathematical content at the Grade 7 level to ensure the Grade 8 students have the mathematical knowledge necessary to adequately complete the assessment as a pretest at the beginning of their Grade 8 year (i.e., this ensures the assessment is measuring argumentation skills and not mathematical content knowledge). The posttest assessment includes the same 5 items as the pretest and 4 additional items that address mathematical content that is taught to Grade 8 students during the school year—at the onset of the school year the students would not have the content knowledge to respond to these items on a pretest.

Resource(s): 

Argumentation Infographic

Research suggests that if students use viable argumentation in their middle school classes, then they will increase their complex mathematical reasoning and mathematics achievement. This is a 2-page infographic detailing the results from a case study.

Author/Presenter: 
RMC
Lead Organization(s): 
Year: 
2019
Short Description: 

Research suggests that if students use viable argumentation in their middle school classes, then they will increase their complex mathematical reasoning and mathematics achievement. This is a 2-page infographic detailing the results from a case study.

Conceptions and Consequences of Mathematical Argumentation, Justification, and Proof

This book aims to advance ongoing debates in the field of mathematics and mathematics education regarding conceptions of argumentation, justification, and proof and the consequences for research and practice when applying particular conceptions of each construct. Through analyses of classroom practice across grade levels using different lenses - particular conceptions of argumentation, justification, and proof - researchers consider the implications of how each conception shapes empirical outcomes.

Author/Presenter: 
Kristen N. Bieda, AnnaMarie Conner, Karl W. Kosko, Megan Staples
AnnaMarie Conner
Karl W. Kosko
Megan Staples
Lead Organization(s): 
Year: 
2020
Short Description: 

This book aims to advance ongoing debates in the field of mathematics and mathematics education regarding conceptions of argumentation, justification, and proof and the consequences for research and practice when applying particular conceptions of each construct. Through analyses of classroom practice across grade levels using different lenses - particular conceptions of argumentation, justification, and proof - researchers consider the implications of how each conception shapes empirical outcomes. In each section, organized by grade band, authors adopt particular conceptions of argumentation, justification, and proof, and they analyse one data set from each perspective. In addition, each section includes a synthesis chapter from an expert in the field to bring to the fore potential implications, as well as new questions, raised by the analyses. Finally, a culminating section considers the use of each conception across grade bands and data sets.

Domain appropriateness and skepticism in viable argumentation

Lead Organization(s): 
Year: 
2020
Short Description: 

Several recent studies have focused on helping students understand the limitations of empirical arguments (e.g., Stylianides, G. J. & Stylianides, A. J., 2009, Brown, 2014). One view is that students use empirical argumentation because they hold empirical proof schemes—they are convinced a general claim is true by checking a few cases (Harel & Sowder, 1998). Some researchers have sought to unseat students’ empirical proof schemes by developing students’ skepticism, their uncertainty about the truth of a general claim in the face of confirming (but not exhaustive) evidence (e.g., Brown, 2014; Stylianides, G. J. & Stylianides, A. J., 2009). With sufficient skepticism, students would seek more secure, non-empirical arguments to convince themselves that a general claim is true. We take a different perspective, seeking to develop students’ awareness of domain appropriateness (DA), whether the argument type is appropriate to the domain of the claim. In particular, DA entails understanding that an empirical check of a proper subset of cases in a claim’s domain does not (i) guarantee the claim is true and does not (ii) provide an argument that is acceptable in the mathematical or classroom community, although checking all cases does both (i) and (ii). DA is distinct from skepticism; it is not concerned with students’ confidence about the truth of a general claim. We studied how ten 8th graders developed DA through classroom experiences that were part of a broader project focused on developing viable argumentation. 

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