# Discourse

## Think Alouds: Informing Scholarship and Broadening Partnerships through Assessment

Think alouds are valuable tools for academicians, test developers, and practitioners as they provide a unique window into a respondent’s thinking during an assessment. The purpose of this special issue is to highlight novel ways to use think alouds as a means to gather evidence about respondents’ thinking. An intended outcome from this special issue is that readers may better understand think alouds and feel better equipped to use them in practical and research settings.

Author/Presenter

Jonathan David Bostic

Year
2021
Short Description

Introduction to special issue focusing on think alouds and response process evidence. This work cuts across STEM education scholarship and introduces readers to robust means to engage in think alouds.

## Gathering Response Process Data for a Problem-Solving Measure through Whole-Class Think Alouds

Response process validity evidence provides a window into a respondent’s cognitive processing. The purpose of this study is to describe a new data collection tool called a whole-class think aloud (WCTA). This work is performed as part of test development for a series of problem-solving measures to be used in elementary and middle grades. Data from third-grade students were collected in a 1–1 think-aloud setting and compared to data from similar students as part of WCTAs. Findings indicated that students performed similarly on the items when the two think-aloud settings were compared.

Author/Presenter

Jonathan David Bostic

Toni A. Sondergeld

Gabriel Matney

Gregory Stone

Tiara Hicks

Year
2021
Short Description

This is a description of a new methodological tool to gather response process validity evidence. The context is scholarship within mathematics education contexts.

## Gathering Response Process Data for a Problem-Solving Measure through Whole-Class Think Alouds

Response process validity evidence provides a window into a respondent’s cognitive processing. The purpose of this study is to describe a new data collection tool called a whole-class think aloud (WCTA). This work is performed as part of test development for a series of problem-solving measures to be used in elementary and middle grades. Data from third-grade students were collected in a 1–1 think-aloud setting and compared to data from similar students as part of WCTAs. Findings indicated that students performed similarly on the items when the two think-aloud settings were compared.

Author/Presenter

Jonathan David Bostic

Toni A. Sondergeld

Gabriel Matney

Gregory Stone

Tiara Hicks

Year
2021
Short Description

This is a description of a new methodological tool to gather response process validity evidence. The context is scholarship within mathematics education contexts.

## An Examination of Credit Recovery Students’ Use of Computer-Based Scaffolding in a Problem-Based, Scientific Inquiry Unit

In this study, we investigated how high school credit recovery students worked in small groups and used computer-based scaffolds to conduct scientific inquiry in a problem-based learning unit centered on water quality. We examined how students searched for and evaluated information from different sources, and used evidence to support their claims. Data sources included screen recordings, interviews, scaffold trace data, and scaffold entry quality ratings. Findings indicate that many students struggled to use the scaffolding and did not fully respond to scaffold prompts.

Author/Presenter

Brian R. Belland

D. Mark Weiss

Nam Ju Kim

Jacob Piland

Jiangyue Gu

Year
2019
Short Description

In this study, we investigated how high school credit recovery students worked in small groups and used computer-based scaffolds to conduct scientific inquiry in a problem-based learning unit centered on water quality.

## Supporting Sense-making with Mathematical Bet Lines

This article presents an instructional strategy called Mathematical Bet Lines that was designed to promote classroom discourse and sense-making for all students, in particular English Language Learners.  Introduced in Project AIM (All Included in Mathematics), a 40 hour professional development program focused promoting meaningful mathematical discourse, the Mathematical Bet Lines strategy supports comprehension of story problems by having students articulate to themselves and others their predictions regarding what is happening in the problem as it is revealed one sentence at a time.  With

Author/Presenter

Lara Dick

Tracy Foote White

Aaron Trocki

Paola Sztajn

Daniel Heck

Kate Herrema

Year
2016
Short Description

This article presents an instructional strategy called Mathematical Bet Lines that was designed to promote classroom discourse and sense-making for all students, in particular English Language Learners.

Resource(s)

## Launching a Discourse-rich Mathematics Lesson

Facilitating meaningful mathematical discourse is dependent on the launch of the lesson where teachers prepare their students to work on the task.

Author/Presenter

Aaron Trocki

Christine Taylor

Tina Starling

Paola Sztajn

Daniel Heck

Year
2015
Short Description

This article discusses the use of the Think Aloud strategy at the beginning of a lesson to model to students both the type of thinking that develops conceptual understanding, as well as how to share one’s thinking.

## Mathematical Argumentation in Middle School—The What, Why, and How

Get them talking: Your formula for bringing math concepts to life!

Author/Presenter

Jennifer Knudsen

Harriette Stevens

Teresa Lara-Meloy

Hee-Joon Kim

Nicole Shechtman

Year
2017
Short Description

This guide delivers all the tools you need to get serious about mathematical argumentation and bring well-planned, well-constructed mathematical discourse to life in your classroom.

## A synthesis of mathematics writing: Assessments, interventions, and surveys

Mathematics standards in the United States describe communication as an essential part of mathematics. One outlet for communication is writing. To understand the mathematics writing of students, we conducted a synthesis to evaluate empirical research about mathematics writing. We identified 29 studies that included a mathematics-writing assessment, intervention, or survey for students in 1st through 12th grade. All studies were published between 1991 and 2015.

Author/Presenter

Sarah Powell

Michael Hebert

Jeremy Cohen

Tutita Casa

Janine Firmender

Year
2017
Short Description

To understand the mathematics writing of students, we conducted a synthesis to evaluate empirical research about mathematics writing. We identified 29 studies that included a mathematics-writing assessment, intervention, or survey for students in 1st through 12th grade. All studies were published between 1991 and 2015.

## The Leaders Handbook for the Practicum Academy to Improve Science Education (PRACTISE)

This handbook provides detailed information on how to conduct a series of research-based professional learning sessions focused on helping elementary classroom teachers to facilitate science argumentation with their students. Each session is 2-3 hours long and focuses on topics such as:

Author/Presenter

Emily Weiss

Craig Strang

Year
2017
Short Description

The Practicum Academy to Improve Science Education (PRACTISE) is a professional learning program to support scientific argumentation in grades 3-5. This handbook provides detailed information on how to conduct a series of research-based professional learning sessions focused on helping elementary classroom teachers to facilitate science argumentation with their students.

Resource(s)

## The Leaders Handbook for the Practicum Academy to Improve Science Education (PRACTISE)

This handbook provides detailed information on how to conduct a series of research-based professional learning sessions focused on helping elementary classroom teachers to facilitate science argumentation with their students. Each session is 2-3 hours long and focuses on topics such as:

Author/Presenter

Emily Weiss

Craig Strang