The purpose of this project is to rigorously test the efficacy of the Precision Mathematics First-Grade (PM-1) intervention on the mathematics outcomes of English learners (ELs) who face mathematics difficulties (MD). The PM-1 intervention is designed to support students with or at risk for MD in developing a robust understanding of the underlying concepts, problem-solving skills, and vocabulary of early measurement and statistical investigation. This study will examine student response to the PM-1 intervention based on variables such as students' initial mathematics skill levels and proficiency in English, and explore how the rate and quality of mathematics discourse opportunities for ELs may predict gains in mathematics outcomes.

- Blanton, M., Stroud, R., Stylianou, D. Stephens, A., Gardiner, A., Knuth, E., Isler, I., & Strachota, S. (2019). Does early algebra matter? The effectiveness of an early algebra intervention in grades 3–5. American
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*Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 46*(1), 39-87.* - Fonger, N., Stephens, A., Blanton, M., Isler, I., Knuth, E., & Gardiner, A. (2018). Developing an early algebra learning progression for curriculum, instruction, and student learning.
*Cognition & Instruction, 30*(1), 30-55.* - Knuth, E., Zaslavsky, O., & Ellis, A. (2019). The role and use of examples in learning to prove.
*Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 53*, 256-262. - Ellis, A., Ozgur, Z., Vinsonhaler, R., Dogan, M., Carolan, T., Lockwood, E., Lynch, A., Sabouri, P., Knuth, E., & Zaslavsky, O. (2019). Student thinking with examples: The criteria-affordances-purposes-strategies framework.
*Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 53*, 263-283.