Early State/Exploratory

Reasoning Language for Teaching Secondary Algebra

This project proposes to study the teaching and learning of algebra in grades 7-9, with a specific focus on the ways in which classroom language explicitly describes properties of and relationships among algebraic objects. The project seeks to investigate the bi-directional relationship between reasoning-rich algebraic discourse and the mathematical meanings students hold for core algebraic concepts such as equations, the equation-solving process, and functions.

Project Email: 
Award Number: 
1908825
Funding Period: 
Sun, 09/01/2019 to Wed, 08/31/2022
Project Evaluator: 
Full Description: 

Decades of research have demonstrated that stronger mathematics classroom discourse, along with the use and connection of multiple mathematical representations, correlates positively with gains in student learning. This relationship is particularly salient in algebra, where diversifying the representations available to students can provide important supports for the development of conceptual understanding. The Reasoning Language for Teaching Secondary Algebra (ReLaTe-SA) project proposes to study the teaching and learning of algebra in grades 7-9, with a specific focus on the ways in which classroom language explicitly describes properties of and relationships among algebraic objects. The project seeks to investigate the bi-directional relationship between reasoning-rich algebraic discourse and the mathematical meanings students hold for core algebraic concepts such as equations, the equation-solving process, and functions. With a focus on the teacher, ReLaTe-SA will analyze classroom narratives about algebraic concepts and procedures and provide an 80-hour professional development program designed to support teachers in developing stronger explanations of algebraic objects, their properties, and their relationships.

The ReLaTe-SA project will investigate three aspects of teacher discourse practice related to algebra. First, the project will study the discourse and discourse routines that teachers use to explain algebraic objects, their properties, and their relationships. This will be accomplished through the development and deployment of an assessment called the Survey of Algebraic Language and Reasoning to identify teachers' discursive routines and narratives in the context of algebra. The instrument asks teachers to interpret student work and explanations by describing the student's mathematical reasoning and underlying mathematical understandings. Second, the project will support potential growth in teachers' algebraic discourse practices through an 80-hour professional development intervention focused on discourse in algebra. The impact of this intervention will be measured by changes to teachers' response patterns on the Survey of Algebraic Language and Reasoning, analyses of teachers' work within the professional development, and the analysis of classroom observations after the professional development has concluded. Third, the project will seek to understand the ways in which teachers develop lessons that explicitly focus on the development of students' algebraic reasoning and discourse. This goal will be realized through analyses of the tasks, plans, and implementations of mathematics lessons in participating teachers' classrooms. Three cohorts of 12 teachers each will be recruited for the project. Based on the results of this exploratory project, the team intends to follow up with a larger-scale study of the professional development and its impact on the teaching and learning of algebra.

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Investigating School District Resilience and the Impact of Hurricane Exposure on Student Outcomes

This Rapid Response Research (RAPID) project is an exploratory mixed methods study investigating the impact of vulnerability and resilience in the recovery of North Carolina schools affected by both Hurricanes Florence (2018) and Matthew (2016). Specifically, the study assesses whether schools that were impacted by both storms used organizational learning strategies to recover faster than schools that were impacted by either Hurricane Florence or Matthew alone.

Project Email: 
Award Number: 
1904156
Funding Period: 
Tue, 01/01/2019 to Tue, 12/31/2019
Project Evaluator: 
Full Description: 

North Carolina has experienced 11 major disasters due to hurricanes or tropical storms over the past 20 years. Moreover, one tropical cyclone has hit the state every two years since 1851. Although natural disasters are frequent, efforts to understand and support public schools' responses to such disasters are rare. This Rapid Response Research (RAPID) project is an exploratory mixed methods study investigating the impact of vulnerability and resilience in the recovery of North Carolina schools affected by both Hurricanes Florence (2018) and Matthew (2016). Specifically, the study assesses whether schools that were impacted by both storms used organizational learning strategies to recover faster than schools that were impacted by either Hurricane Florence or Matthew alone. The project pursues three research questions: (1) What characteristics predict school district resilience? (2) How does prior disaster experience aid/hinder a resilient recovery? (3) Do students in resilient districts show less learning loss or rebound from learning loss more quickly?

This mixed methods project will involve interviews, focus groups and surveys with school and district personnel in a purposive sample of 15 districts across North Carolina that were heavily impacted by both storms and those that were affected by only one. These qualitative data will be used to derive markers of resilience that will then be used in quantitative analyses. Quantitative comparisons of state-wide data on student outcomes (e.g., achievement, attendance) will also be made across three kinds of districts: those that were affected by both storms, those that were affected by only one storm and those that were not affected at all. Quantitative data will be taken from an existing longitudinal database that includes individual student characteristics, attendance, suspensions and academic performance for all students in North Carolina. The purposive sampling of 15 districts in North Carolina allows for a novel comparison of impact, recovery and organizational learning across two disasters and over time. Disasters can create an opportunity for organizational change leading to greater resiliency in future crises; however, little extant research has focused on whether and how schools recover and remain resilient in the aftermath of natural disasters, such as hurricanes. This project can benefit schools in crisis by providing lessons learned and a roadmap for action to schools that are singularly and repeatedly impacted by natural disasters.

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Articulating a Transformative Approach for Designing Tasks that Measure Young Learners' Developing Proficiencies in Integrated Science and Literacy (Collaborative Research: Harris)

The main goal of this study will be to conduct exploratory-design work to produce both the design approach and the early-stage tasks that are critical inputs for creating a program of research and development to more fully develop a suite of innovative assessment tasks for the early grades.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1903103
Funding Period: 
Sat, 12/15/2018 to Sat, 11/30/2019
Full Description: 

SRI International, University of California-Berkeley (Lawrence Hall of Science), and WestEd will join efforts to articulate a potentially transformative approach for designing new kinds of classroom-based, three-dimensional assessment tasks that measure first graders' proficiencies in integrated science and literacy learning. The main goal of this study will be to conduct exploratory-design work to produce both the design approach and the early-stage tasks that are critical inputs for creating a program of research and development to more fully develop a suite of innovative assessment tasks for the early grades. Specific goals of the effort will be: (1) to iteratively develop and refine a design approach that enables assessment designers to develop Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)-aligned tasks and rubrics that include a literacy component for the early grades; (2) to use this design approach to create two exemplar assessment tasks that are feasible for classroom use; and (3) to collect initial evidence that informs the promise of the design approach.

The work's research question will be: How can we extend current methodology to create assessments that integrate the three dimensions of the NGSS and literacy for early learners? The study will select first grade as the learning environment and two of the NGSS first grade performance expectations as the assessment targets. First grade students are typically at a critical point in developing their language and literacy proficiencies, which will allow the team to take on the challenges of variation in language and literacy skills. Correspondingly, the study will select two NGSS first grade life sciences performance expectations, because they include direct ties to literacy practices in science: (1) From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes (Read texts and use media to determine patterns in behavior of parents and offspring that help offspring survive); and (2) Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits (Make observations to construct an evidence-based account that young plants and animals are like, but not exactly like their parents). The design phase of the activity will consist of an assessment of the learning context and targets of the study, and the development of an assessment framework following the National Research Center's report, "Designing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards" (2014), including the principled assessment evidence-centered-design methodology. Data gathering, and interpretation strategies will include Experts' Review of the design approach, a focus group of teachers (n=8), and one-on-one cognitive interviews with students (n=20), conducted by researchers, which will be recorded to determine the quality and usability of the assessments using qualitative methods. The ultimate outcome of the proposed work will be a design approach for creating assessment tasks in a principled way across science disciplines for early elementary grade students. An advisory board will provide formative assessment feedback to the research team.

Articulating a Transformative Approach for Designing Tasks that Measure Young Learners' Developing Proficiencies in Integrated Science and Literacy (Collaborative Research: Rutstein)

The main goal of this study will be to conduct exploratory-design work to produce both the design approach and the early-stage tasks that are critical inputs for creating a program of research and development to more fully develop a suite of innovative assessment tasks for the early grades.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1853923
Funding Period: 
Sat, 12/15/2018 to Sat, 11/30/2019
Full Description: 

SRI International, University of California-Berkeley (Lawrence Hall of Science), and WestEd will join efforts to articulate a potentially transformative approach for designing new kinds of classroom-based, three-dimensional assessment tasks that measure first graders' proficiencies in integrated science and literacy learning. The main goal of this study will be to conduct exploratory-design work to produce both the design approach and the early-stage tasks that are critical inputs for creating a program of research and development to more fully develop a suite of innovative assessment tasks for the early grades. Specific goals of the effort will be: (1) to iteratively develop and refine a design approach that enables assessment designers to develop Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)-aligned tasks and rubrics that include a literacy component for the early grades; (2) to use this design approach to create two exemplar assessment tasks that are feasible for classroom use; and (3) to collect initial evidence that informs the promise of the design approach.

The work's research question will be: How can we extend current methodology to create assessments that integrate the three dimensions of the NGSS and literacy for early learners? The study will select first grade as the learning environment and two of the NGSS first grade performance expectations as the assessment targets. First grade students are typically at a critical point in developing their language and literacy proficiencies, which will allow the team to take on the challenges of variation in language and literacy skills. Correspondingly, the study will select two NGSS first grade life sciences performance expectations, because they include direct ties to literacy practices in science: (1) From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes (Read texts and use media to determine patterns in behavior of parents and offspring that help offspring survive); and (2) Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits (Make observations to construct an evidence-based account that young plants and animals are like, but not exactly like their parents). The design phase of the activity will consist of an assessment of the learning context and targets of the study, and the development of an assessment framework following the National Research Center's report, "Designing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards" (2014), including the principled assessment evidence-centered-design methodology. Data gathering, and interpretation strategies will include Experts' Review of the design approach, a focus group of teachers (n=8), and one-on-one cognitive interviews with students (n=20), conducted by researchers, which will be recorded to determine the quality and usability of the assessments using qualitative methods. The ultimate outcome of the proposed work will be a design approach for creating assessment tasks in a principled way across science disciplines for early elementary grade students. An advisory board will provide formative assessment feedback to the research team.

Articulating a Transformative Approach for Designing Tasks that Measure Young Learners' Developing Proficiencies in Integrated Science and Literacy (Collaborative Research: Billman)

The main goal of this study will be to conduct exploratory-design work to produce both the design approach and the early-stage tasks that are critical inputs for creating a program of research and development to more fully develop a suite of innovative assessment tasks for the early grades.

Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1853951
Funding Period: 
Sat, 12/15/2018 to Sat, 11/30/2019
Full Description: 

SRI International, University of California-Berkeley (Lawrence Hall of Science), and WestEd will join efforts to articulate a potentially transformative approach for designing new kinds of classroom-based, three-dimensional assessment tasks that measure first graders' proficiencies in integrated science and literacy learning. The main goal of this study will be to conduct exploratory-design work to produce both the design approach and the early-stage tasks that are critical inputs for creating a program of research and development to more fully develop a suite of innovative assessment tasks for the early grades. Specific goals of the effort will be: (1) to iteratively develop and refine a design approach that enables assessment designers to develop Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)-aligned tasks and rubrics that include a literacy component for the early grades; (2) to use this design approach to create two exemplar assessment tasks that are feasible for classroom use; and (3) to collect initial evidence that informs the promise of the design approach.

The work's research question will be: How can we extend current methodology to create assessments that integrate the three dimensions of the NGSS and literacy for early learners? The study will select first grade as the learning environment and two of the NGSS first grade performance expectations as the assessment targets. First grade students are typically at a critical point in developing their language and literacy proficiencies, which will allow the team to take on the challenges of variation in language and literacy skills. Correspondingly, the study will select two NGSS first grade life sciences performance expectations, because they include direct ties to literacy practices in science: (1) From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes (Read texts and use media to determine patterns in behavior of parents and offspring that help offspring survive); and (2) Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits (Make observations to construct an evidence-based account that young plants and animals are like, but not exactly like their parents). The design phase of the activity will consist of an assessment of the learning context and targets of the study, and the development of an assessment framework following the National Research Center's report, "Designing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards" (2014), including the principled assessment evidence-centered-design methodology. Data gathering, and interpretation strategies will include Experts' Review of the design approach, a focus group of teachers (n=8), and one-on-one cognitive interviews with students (n=20), conducted by researchers, which will be recorded to determine the quality and usability of the assessments using qualitative methods. The ultimate outcome of the proposed work will be a design approach for creating assessment tasks in a principled way across science disciplines for early elementary grade students. An advisory board will provide formative assessment feedback to the research team.

CAREER: Cultivating Teachers' Epistemic Empathy to Promote Responsive Teaching

This CAREER award aims to study the construct of "epistemic empathy" and examine how it can be cultivated in science and mathematics teacher education, how it functions to promote responsive teaching, and how it shapes learners' engagement in the classroom. In the context of this project, epistemic empathy is defined as the act of understanding and appreciating another's cognitive and emotional experience within an epistemic activity aimed at the construction, communication, and critique of knowledge.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1844453
Funding Period: 
Mon, 07/01/2019 to Sun, 06/30/2024
Full Description: 

When students perceive that their sense-making resources, including their cultural, linguistic, and everyday experiences, are not relevant to their science and mathematics classrooms, they may view these fields as inaccessible to them. This in turn creates an obstacle to their engagement and active participation which becomes particularly consequential for students from traditionally underrepresented populations. This issue points at the pressing need to prepare science and mathematics teachers to open up their instruction to students’ diverse ideas and meaning-making repertoires. This CAREER award aims to address this need by studying the construct of teachers’ "epistemic empathy” which is defined as the act of understanding and appreciating another's cognitive and emotional experience within an epistemic activity—an activity aimed at the construction, communication, and critique of knowledge. Through epistemic empathy, teachers take learners' perspectives and identify with their sense-making experiences in service of fostering their inquiries. The project’s goals are to examine how epistemic empathy can be cultivated in science and mathematics teacher education, how it functions to promote responsive teaching, and how it shapes learners' engagement in the classroom.

The five research questions will be: (1) Do the ways in which pre-service teachers display epistemic empathy change throughout a course aimed at promoting attention to and knowledge about learners’ varied ways of knowing in science and mathematics?; (2) How do the teaching domain and teaching context influence how teachers express epistemic empathy, and the concerns and tensions they report around empathizing with learners’ thinking and emotions?; (3) How does epistemic empathy shape the ways in which teachers understand and reflect on their roles, goals, and priorities as science or mathematics teachers?; (4) How does epistemic empathy shape teachers’ responsiveness to student thinking and emotions during instruction?; and (5) How does teachers’ epistemic empathy influence how students orient and respond to each other’s thinking in science and mathematics classrooms?

To address these questions, the project will conduct a series of design-based research studies working with science and mathematics pre-service and in-service K-12 teachers (n=140) to design, implement, and analyze ways to elicit and cultivate their epistemic empathy. Further, the project will explore how epistemic empathy shapes teachers’ views of their roles, goals, and priorities as science or mathematics teachers and how it influences their enactment of responsive teaching practices. The project will also examine the influence of teachers’ epistemic empathy on student engagement, in particular in the ways students attend and respond to each other’s epistemic experiences in the classroom. Data collection will include video and audio recording of teacher education and professional development sessions; collection of teachers’ work within those sessions such as their responses to a pre- and post- video assessment task and their written analyses of different videos of student inquiry; interviews with the teachers; and videos from the teachers’ own instruction as well as teachers’ reflections on these videos in stimulated recall interviews. These data will be analyzed using both qualitative methods (i.e., discourse analysis, interaction analysis) and quantitative methods (i.e., blind coding, descriptive statistics). The project’s outcomes will be: (1) an instructional model that targets epistemic empathy as a pedagogical resource for teachers, with exemplars of activities and tasks aimed at developing teachers' attunement to and ways of leveraging learners' meaning-making repertoires (2) local theory of teachers' learning to epistemically empathize with learners in science and mathematics; and (3) empirical descriptions of how epistemic empathy functions to guide and shape teachers' responsiveness and students' engagement. An advisory board will provide feedback on the project’s progress, as well as formative and summative evaluation.

An Integrated Approach to Early Elementary Earth and Space Science

This project will study if, how, and under what circumstances an integration of literacy strategies, hands-on inquiry-based investigations, and planetarium experiences supports the development of science practices (noticing, recognizing change, making predictions, and constructing explanations) in early elementary level students. The project will generate knowledge about how astronomy-focused storybooks, hands-on investigations, and planetarium experiences can be integrated to develop age-appropriate science practices in very young children.

Award Number: 
1813189
Funding Period: 
Sat, 09/01/2018 to Mon, 08/31/2020
Full Description: 

State science standards increasingly emphasize the importance of engaging K-12 students directly in natural phenomena and providing opportunities to construct explanations grounded in evidence. Moreover, these state science standards introduce earth and space science content in the early elementary grades. This creates a critical need for new pedagogies, materials, and resources for science teachers in all grades, but the need is particularly urgent in grades K-3 where teachers have had little preparation to teach science, let alone astronomy. There is also growing consensus that when learning opportunities in formal and informal settings are closely aligned, children's science literacy is developed in ways greater than either setting can achieve alone. The investigators will study if, how, and under what circumstances an integration of literacy strategies, hands-on inquiry-based investigations, and planetarium experiences supports the development of science practices (noticing, recognizing change, making predictions, and constructing explanations) in early elementary level students. This project will generate knowledge about how astronomy-focused storybooks, hands-on investigations, and planetarium experiences can be integrated to develop age-appropriate science practices in very young children (noticing, recognizing change, making predictions, and constructing explanations).

Emergent research on the development of children's science thinking indicates that when young children are engaged with science-focused storybooks and activities that each highlight the same phenomenon, children notice and gather evidence, make predictions and claims based on evidence, and provide explanations grounded in the experiences provided to them. This project has two phases. In Phase 1, first and third grade teachers will be recruited. They will help identify specific learner needs as these relate to the earth and space science standards in their grade band, assist in the development and pilot testing of a prototype instructional sequence and supporting activities taking place within their classrooms and at a local planetarium. In Phase 2, the revised learning sequence and research protocol will be implemented with the same teachers and a new cohort of children. The mixed method research design includes video observations, teacher interviews, and teacher and student surveys. Data analysis will focus on science practices, connections across contexts (e.g., school and planetarium), and instructional adaptations. The project involves a research-practice collaboration between the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Rockman & Associates, the Lawrence Hall of Science at the University of California, Berkeley, and West Chester University.

Enhancing Teacher and Student Understanding of Engineering in K-5 Bilingual Programs

This mixed-method exploratory study will examine how bilingual teachers working in elementary schools in Massachusetts and Puerto Rico understand the role and skills of engineers in society. In turn, it will examine how teachers adapt existing engineering lessons so that those activities and concepts are more culturally and linguistically accessible to their students.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1814258
Funding Period: 
Mon, 10/01/2018 to Thu, 09/30/2021
Full Description: 

Engineering is part of everyone's local community and daily activities yet opportunities to learn about engineering are often absent from elementary school classrooms. Further, little is known about how teachers' and students' conceptions of engineering relate to aspects of their local community such as language and culture. Knowing more about this is important because students' perceptions of mismatch between their personal culture and the engineering field contributes to the continued underrepresentation of minorities in the profession. This mixed-method exploratory study will examine how bilingual teachers working in elementary schools in Massachusetts and Puerto Rico understand the role and skills of engineers in society. In turn, it will examine how teachers adapt existing engineering lessons so that those activities and concepts are more culturally and linguistically accessible to their students.

Consistent with the aims of the DRK-12 program, this project will advance understanding of how engineering education materials can be adapted to the characteristics of teachers, students, and the communities that they reside in. Further, its focus on bilingual classrooms will bring new perspectives to characterizations of the engineering field and its role in different cultures and societies. Over a three-year period, the team will investigate these issues by collecting data from 24 teachers (12 from each location). Data will be collected via surveys, interviews, discussion of instructional examples, videos of teachers' classroom instruction and analysis of artifacts such as teachers' lesson plans. Teachers will collaborate and function as a professional co-learning community called instructional rounds by participating and providing feedback synchronously in face-to-face settings and via the use of digital apps. Project findings can lead to teaching guidelines, practices, and briefs that inform efforts to successfully integrate bilingual engineering curriculum at the elementary grades. This work also has the potential to create professional development models of success for K-5 teachers in bilingual programs and enhance engineering teaching strategies and methods at these early grade levels.

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Teaching in Rural Areas Using Cultural Knowledge Systems

This project will collaborate with Indigenous communities to create educational resources serving Inupiaq middle school students and their teachers. The Cultural Connections Process Model (CCPM) will formalize, implement, and test a process model for community-engaged educational resource development for Indigenous populations. The project will contribute to a greater understanding of effective natural science teaching and science career recruitment of minority students.

Award Number: 
1812888
Funding Period: 
Sat, 09/01/2018 to Tue, 08/31/2021
Full Description: 

The Cultural Connections Process Model (CCPM) will formalize, implement, and test a process model for community-engaged educational resource development for Indigenous populations. The project will collaborate with Indigenous communities to create educational resources serving Inupiaq middle school students and their teachers. Research activities take place in Northwest Alaska. Senior personnel will travel to rural communities to collaborate with and support participants. The visits demonstrate University of Alaska Fairbanks's commitment to support pathways toward STEM careers, community engagement in research, science teacher recruitment and preparation, and STEM career awareness for Indigenous and rural pre-college students. Pre-service teachers who access to the resources and findings from this project will be better prepared to teach STEM to Native students and other minorities and may be more willing to continue careers as science educators teaching in settings with Indigenous students. The project will contribute to a greater understanding of effective natural science teaching and science career recruitment of minority students. The project's participants and the pre-college students they teach will be part of the pipeline into science careers for underrepresented Native students in Arctic communities. The project will build on partnerships outside of Alaska serving other Indigenous populations and will expand outreach associated with NSF's polar science investments.

CCPM will build on cultural knowledge systems and NSF polar research investments to address science themes relevant to Inupiat people, who have inhabited the region for thousands of years. An Inupiaq scholar will conduct project research and guide collaboration between Indigenous participants and science researchers using the Inupiaq research methodology known as Katimarugut (meaning "we are meeting"). The project research and development will engage 450 students in grades 6-8 and serves 450 students (92% Indigenous) and 11 teachers in the remote Arctic. There are two broad research hypotheses. The first is that the project will build knowledge concerning STEM research practices by accessing STEM understandings and methodologies embedded in Indigenous knowledge systems; engaging Indigenous communities in project development of curricular resources; and bringing Arctic science research aligned with Indigenous priorities into underserved classrooms. The second is that classroom implementation of resources developed using the CCPM will improve student attitudes toward and engagement with STEM and increase their understandings of place-based science concepts. Findings from development and testing will form the basis for further development, broader implementation and deeper research to inform policy and practice on STEM education for underrepresented minorities and on rural education.

Developing Preservice Teachers' Capacity to Teach Students with Learning Disabilities in Algebra I

Project researchers are training pre-service teachers to tutor students with learning disabilities in Algebra 1, combining principles from special education, mathematics education, and cognitive psychology. The trainings emphasize the use of gestures and strategic questioning to support students with learning disabilities and to build students’ understanding in Algebra 1.

Project Email: 
Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1813903
Funding Period: 
Wed, 08/01/2018 to Sat, 07/31/2021
Full Description: 

This project is implementing a program to train pre-service teachers to tutor students with learning disabilities in Algebra 1, combining principles from special education, mathematics education, and cognitive psychology. The project trains tutors to utilize gestures and strategic questioning to support students with LD to build connections between procedural knowledge and conceptual understanding in Algebra 1, while supporting students’ dispositions towards doing mathematics. The training will prepare tutors to address the challenges that students with LD often face—especially challenges of working memory and processing—and to build on their strengths as they engage with Algebra 1. The project will measure changes in tutors’ ability to use gestures and questioning to support the learning of students with LD during and after the completion of our training. It will also collect and analyze data on the knowledge and dispositions of students with LD in Algebra 1 for use in the ongoing refinement of the training and in documenting the impact of the training program.

 

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