Early State/Exploratory

Reasoning Language for Teaching Secondary Algebra

This project proposes to study the teaching and learning of algebra in grades 7-9, with a specific focus on the ways in which classroom language explicitly describes properties of and relationships among algebraic objects. The project seeks to investigate the bi-directional relationship between reasoning-rich algebraic discourse and the mathematical meanings students hold for core algebraic concepts such as equations, the equation-solving process, and functions.

Project Email: 
Award Number: 
1908825
Funding Period: 
Sun, 09/01/2019 to Wed, 08/31/2022
Project Evaluator: 
Full Description: 

Decades of research have demonstrated that stronger mathematics classroom discourse, along with the use and connection of multiple mathematical representations, correlates positively with gains in student learning. This relationship is particularly salient in algebra, where diversifying the representations available to students can provide important supports for the development of conceptual understanding. The Reasoning Language for Teaching Secondary Algebra (ReLaTe-SA) project proposes to study the teaching and learning of algebra in grades 7-9, with a specific focus on the ways in which classroom language explicitly describes properties of and relationships among algebraic objects. The project seeks to investigate the bi-directional relationship between reasoning-rich algebraic discourse and the mathematical meanings students hold for core algebraic concepts such as equations, the equation-solving process, and functions. With a focus on the teacher, ReLaTe-SA will analyze classroom narratives about algebraic concepts and procedures and provide an 80-hour professional development program designed to support teachers in developing stronger explanations of algebraic objects, their properties, and their relationships.

The ReLaTe-SA project will investigate three aspects of teacher discourse practice related to algebra. First, the project will study the discourse and discourse routines that teachers use to explain algebraic objects, their properties, and their relationships. This will be accomplished through the development and deployment of an assessment called the Survey of Algebraic Language and Reasoning to identify teachers' discursive routines and narratives in the context of algebra. The instrument asks teachers to interpret student work and explanations by describing the student's mathematical reasoning and underlying mathematical understandings. Second, the project will support potential growth in teachers' algebraic discourse practices through an 80-hour professional development intervention focused on discourse in algebra. The impact of this intervention will be measured by changes to teachers' response patterns on the Survey of Algebraic Language and Reasoning, analyses of teachers' work within the professional development, and the analysis of classroom observations after the professional development has concluded. Third, the project will seek to understand the ways in which teachers develop lessons that explicitly focus on the development of students' algebraic reasoning and discourse. This goal will be realized through analyses of the tasks, plans, and implementations of mathematics lessons in participating teachers' classrooms. Three cohorts of 12 teachers each will be recruited for the project. Based on the results of this exploratory project, the team intends to follow up with a larger-scale study of the professional development and its impact on the teaching and learning of algebra.

Alternative video text
Alternative video text: 

Building Students' Data Literacy through the Co-design of Curriculum by Mathematics and Art Teachers (Collaborative Research: Matuk)

This project aims to enact and study the co-design of classroom activities by mathematics and visual arts teachers to promote middle school students' data literacy.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1908557
Funding Period: 
Mon, 07/01/2019 to Wed, 06/30/2021
Full Description: 

The aim of this project is to enact and study a process in which middle school teachers of mathematics and visual arts co-design and teach activities that combine math and art to teach data science. Many existing efforts to promote data literacy are grounded in mathematical concepts of central tendency and variation, and typically are narrowly focused in single subject domains. Taking an art-based perspective on data science has the potential to promote student relevance, accessibility, engagement, reasoning, and meaning-making with data science. Moreover, visualization technology has advanced to a degree that the relation between the information in data and visual aesthetic can be leveraged easily. To explore the opportunity this offers, research on this project will examine how to equip teachers to develop such interdisciplinary pedagogical approaches to cultivate their students' data literacy. This exploratory project will provide support for 12 teachers during summer workshops and during the school year as these teachers implement their co-designed units in their classrooms. The work addresses the following questions: (1) How do we support effective co-design of data literacy units among art teachers, mathematics teachers, and researchers? (2) How are teachers able to use the unit materials in their classrooms to engage students in data literacy? And (3) How does an art-based approach support students' data literacy? Answers to these questions will build an understanding of how to support interdisciplinary curriculum design collaborations among researchers and teachers. They will also show how art-integrated, maker-oriented activities can support middle school learners' data literacy development; and how to design technologies that are accessible and powerful to teachers and learners in these interdisciplinary environments.

Through summer workshops and year-round design collaborations, the project will iteratively design, test and refine four units for middle school classrooms, including activities, tools, and assessments, to promote students' data literacy. Data will be collected from co-design sessions as well as classroom-enactments, and will include observations, video/audio recordings, student- and teacher-generated artifacts, and pre and post assessments of students' knowledge and self-efficacy. Mixed methods analyses of these data, and syntheses of findings across participants, classroom enactments, and project years, will explore effective ways to support co-design among art teachers, mathematics teachers, and researchers; and the impact of art-integrated activities on students' data literacy. This project will reach 12 teachers and their students across 6 New York city schools. By building capacity and knowledge about how to initiate and sustain teachers' interdisciplinary curriculum collaborations, the project will have broader impact. Refined project materials, including pedagogical approaches, toolkits and adaptable classroom activities, will be disseminated to facilitate classroom adoption by other educators who wish to undertake similar art-integrated data literacy curriculum design collaborations, and will thus ultimately broaden participation in data science among diverse youth within and beyond New York City.

Building Students' Data Literacy through the Co-design of Curriculum by Mathematics and Art Teachers (Collaborative Research: Vacca)

The aim of this project is to enact and study a process in which middle school teachers of mathematics and visual arts co-design and teach activities that combine math and art to teach data science.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1908142
Funding Period: 
Mon, 07/01/2019 to Wed, 06/30/2021
Full Description: 

The aim of this project is to enact and study a process in which middle school teachers of mathematics and visual arts co-design and teach activities that combine math and art to teach data science. Many existing efforts to promote data literacy are grounded in mathematical concepts of central tendency and variation, and typically are narrowly focused in single subject domains. Taking an art-based perspective on data science has the potential to promote student relevance, accessibility, engagement, reasoning, and meaning-making with data science. Moreover, visualization technology has advanced to a degree that the relation between the information in data and visual aesthetic can be leveraged easily. To explore the opportunity this offers, research on this project will examine how to equip teachers to develop such interdisciplinary pedagogical approaches to cultivate their students' data literacy. This exploratory project will provide support for 12 teachers during summer workshops and during the school year as these teachers implement their co-designed units in their classrooms. The work addresses the following questions: (1) How do we support effective co-design of data literacy units among art teachers, mathematics teachers, and researchers? (2) How are teachers able to use the unit materials in their classrooms to engage students in data literacy? And (3) How does an art-based approach support students' data literacy? Answers to these questions will build an understanding of how to support interdisciplinary curriculum design collaborations among researchers and teachers. They will also show how art-integrated, maker-oriented activities can support middle school learners' data literacy development; and how to design technologies that are accessible and powerful to teachers and learners in these interdisciplinary environments.

Through summer workshops and year-round design collaborations, the project will iteratively design, test and refine four units for middle school classrooms, including activities, tools, and assessments, to promote students' data literacy. Data will be collected from co-design sessions as well as classroom-enactments, and will include observations, video/audio recordings, student- and teacher-generated artifacts, and pre and post assessments of students' knowledge and self-efficacy. Mixed methods analyses of these data, and syntheses of findings across participants, classroom enactments, and project years, will explore effective ways to support co-design among art teachers, mathematics teachers, and researchers; and the impact of art-integrated activities on students' data literacy. This project will reach 12 teachers and their students across 6 New York city schools. By building capacity and knowledge about how to initiate and sustain teachers' interdisciplinary curriculum collaborations, the project will have broader impact. Refined project materials, including pedagogical approaches, toolkits and adaptable classroom activities, will be disseminated to facilitate classroom adoption by other educators who wish to undertake similar art-integrated data literacy curriculum design collaborations, and will thus ultimately broaden participation in data science among diverse youth within and beyond New York City.

Building Students' Data Literacy through the Co-design of Curriculum by Mathematics and Art Teachers (Collaborative Research: Silander)

The aim of this project is to enact and study a process in which middle school teachers of mathematics and visual arts co-design and teach activities that combine math and art to teach data science.

Award Number: 
1908030
Funding Period: 
Mon, 07/01/2019 to Wed, 06/30/2021
Full Description: 

The aim of this project is to enact and study a process in which middle school teachers of mathematics and visual arts co-design and teach activities that combine math and art to teach data science. Many existing efforts to promote data literacy are grounded in mathematical concepts of central tendency and variation, and typically are narrowly focused in single subject domains. Taking an art-based perspective on data science has the potential to promote student relevance, accessibility, engagement, reasoning, and meaning-making with data science. Moreover, visualization technology has advanced to a degree that the relation between the information in data and visual aesthetic can be leveraged easily. To explore the opportunity this offers, research on this project will examine how to equip teachers to develop such interdisciplinary pedagogical approaches to cultivate their students' data literacy. This exploratory project will provide support for 12 teachers during summer workshops and during the school year as these teachers implement their co-designed units in their classrooms. The work addresses the following questions: (1) How do we support effective co-design of data literacy units among art teachers, mathematics teachers, and researchers? (2) How are teachers able to use the unit materials in their classrooms to engage students in data literacy? And (3) How does an art-based approach support students' data literacy? Answers to these questions will build an understanding of how to support interdisciplinary curriculum design collaborations among researchers and teachers. They will also show how art-integrated, maker-oriented activities can support middle school learners' data literacy development; and how to design technologies that are accessible and powerful to teachers and learners in these interdisciplinary environments.

Through summer workshops and year-round design collaborations, the project will iteratively design, test and refine four units for middle school classrooms, including activities, tools, and assessments, to promote students' data literacy. Data will be collected from co-design sessions as well as classroom-enactments, and will include observations, video/audio recordings, student- and teacher-generated artifacts, and pre and post assessments of students' knowledge and self-efficacy. Mixed methods analyses of these data, and syntheses of findings across participants, classroom enactments, and project years, will explore effective ways to support co-design among art teachers, mathematics teachers, and researchers; and the impact of art-integrated activities on students' data literacy. This project will reach 12 teachers and their students across 6 New York city schools. By building capacity and knowledge about how to initiate and sustain teachers' interdisciplinary curriculum collaborations, the project will have broader impact. Refined project materials, including pedagogical approaches, toolkits and adaptable classroom activities, will be disseminated to facilitate classroom adoption by other educators who wish to undertake similar art-integrated data literacy curriculum design collaborations, and will thus ultimately broaden participation in data science among diverse youth within and beyond New York City.

Investigating School District Resilience and the Impact of Hurricane Exposure on Student Outcomes

This Rapid Response Research (RAPID) project is an exploratory mixed methods study investigating the impact of vulnerability and resilience in the recovery of North Carolina schools affected by both Hurricanes Florence (2018) and Matthew (2016). Specifically, the study assesses whether schools that were impacted by both storms used organizational learning strategies to recover faster than schools that were impacted by either Hurricane Florence or Matthew alone.

Project Email: 
Award Number: 
1904156
Funding Period: 
Tue, 01/01/2019 to Tue, 12/31/2019
Project Evaluator: 
Full Description: 

North Carolina has experienced 11 major disasters due to hurricanes or tropical storms over the past 20 years. Moreover, one tropical cyclone has hit the state every two years since 1851. Although natural disasters are frequent, efforts to understand and support public schools' responses to such disasters are rare. This Rapid Response Research (RAPID) project is an exploratory mixed methods study investigating the impact of vulnerability and resilience in the recovery of North Carolina schools affected by both Hurricanes Florence (2018) and Matthew (2016). Specifically, the study assesses whether schools that were impacted by both storms used organizational learning strategies to recover faster than schools that were impacted by either Hurricane Florence or Matthew alone. The project pursues three research questions: (1) What characteristics predict school district resilience? (2) How does prior disaster experience aid/hinder a resilient recovery? (3) Do students in resilient districts show less learning loss or rebound from learning loss more quickly?

This mixed methods project will involve interviews, focus groups and surveys with school and district personnel in a purposive sample of 15 districts across North Carolina that were heavily impacted by both storms and those that were affected by only one. These qualitative data will be used to derive markers of resilience that will then be used in quantitative analyses. Quantitative comparisons of state-wide data on student outcomes (e.g., achievement, attendance) will also be made across three kinds of districts: those that were affected by both storms, those that were affected by only one storm and those that were not affected at all. Quantitative data will be taken from an existing longitudinal database that includes individual student characteristics, attendance, suspensions and academic performance for all students in North Carolina. The purposive sampling of 15 districts in North Carolina allows for a novel comparison of impact, recovery and organizational learning across two disasters and over time. Disasters can create an opportunity for organizational change leading to greater resiliency in future crises; however, little extant research has focused on whether and how schools recover and remain resilient in the aftermath of natural disasters, such as hurricanes. This project can benefit schools in crisis by providing lessons learned and a roadmap for action to schools that are singularly and repeatedly impacted by natural disasters.

Alternative video text
Alternative video text: 

Articulating a Transformative Approach for Designing Tasks that Measure Young Learners' Developing Proficiencies in Integrated Science and Literacy (Collaborative Research: Harris)

The main goal of this study will be to conduct exploratory-design work to produce both the design approach and the early-stage tasks that are critical inputs for creating a program of research and development to more fully develop a suite of innovative assessment tasks for the early grades.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1903103
Funding Period: 
Sat, 12/15/2018 to Sat, 11/30/2019
Full Description: 

SRI International, University of California-Berkeley (Lawrence Hall of Science), and WestEd will join efforts to articulate a potentially transformative approach for designing new kinds of classroom-based, three-dimensional assessment tasks that measure first graders' proficiencies in integrated science and literacy learning. The main goal of this study will be to conduct exploratory-design work to produce both the design approach and the early-stage tasks that are critical inputs for creating a program of research and development to more fully develop a suite of innovative assessment tasks for the early grades. Specific goals of the effort will be: (1) to iteratively develop and refine a design approach that enables assessment designers to develop Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)-aligned tasks and rubrics that include a literacy component for the early grades; (2) to use this design approach to create two exemplar assessment tasks that are feasible for classroom use; and (3) to collect initial evidence that informs the promise of the design approach.

The work's research question will be: How can we extend current methodology to create assessments that integrate the three dimensions of the NGSS and literacy for early learners? The study will select first grade as the learning environment and two of the NGSS first grade performance expectations as the assessment targets. First grade students are typically at a critical point in developing their language and literacy proficiencies, which will allow the team to take on the challenges of variation in language and literacy skills. Correspondingly, the study will select two NGSS first grade life sciences performance expectations, because they include direct ties to literacy practices in science: (1) From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes (Read texts and use media to determine patterns in behavior of parents and offspring that help offspring survive); and (2) Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits (Make observations to construct an evidence-based account that young plants and animals are like, but not exactly like their parents). The design phase of the activity will consist of an assessment of the learning context and targets of the study, and the development of an assessment framework following the National Research Center's report, "Designing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards" (2014), including the principled assessment evidence-centered-design methodology. Data gathering, and interpretation strategies will include Experts' Review of the design approach, a focus group of teachers (n=8), and one-on-one cognitive interviews with students (n=20), conducted by researchers, which will be recorded to determine the quality and usability of the assessments using qualitative methods. The ultimate outcome of the proposed work will be a design approach for creating assessment tasks in a principled way across science disciplines for early elementary grade students. An advisory board will provide formative assessment feedback to the research team.

Articulating a Transformative Approach for Designing Tasks that Measure Young Learners' Developing Proficiencies in Integrated Science and Literacy (Collaborative Research: Rutstein)

The main goal of this study will be to conduct exploratory-design work to produce both the design approach and the early-stage tasks that are critical inputs for creating a program of research and development to more fully develop a suite of innovative assessment tasks for the early grades.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1853923
Funding Period: 
Sat, 12/15/2018 to Sat, 11/30/2019
Full Description: 

SRI International, University of California-Berkeley (Lawrence Hall of Science), and WestEd will join efforts to articulate a potentially transformative approach for designing new kinds of classroom-based, three-dimensional assessment tasks that measure first graders' proficiencies in integrated science and literacy learning. The main goal of this study will be to conduct exploratory-design work to produce both the design approach and the early-stage tasks that are critical inputs for creating a program of research and development to more fully develop a suite of innovative assessment tasks for the early grades. Specific goals of the effort will be: (1) to iteratively develop and refine a design approach that enables assessment designers to develop Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)-aligned tasks and rubrics that include a literacy component for the early grades; (2) to use this design approach to create two exemplar assessment tasks that are feasible for classroom use; and (3) to collect initial evidence that informs the promise of the design approach.

The work's research question will be: How can we extend current methodology to create assessments that integrate the three dimensions of the NGSS and literacy for early learners? The study will select first grade as the learning environment and two of the NGSS first grade performance expectations as the assessment targets. First grade students are typically at a critical point in developing their language and literacy proficiencies, which will allow the team to take on the challenges of variation in language and literacy skills. Correspondingly, the study will select two NGSS first grade life sciences performance expectations, because they include direct ties to literacy practices in science: (1) From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes (Read texts and use media to determine patterns in behavior of parents and offspring that help offspring survive); and (2) Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits (Make observations to construct an evidence-based account that young plants and animals are like, but not exactly like their parents). The design phase of the activity will consist of an assessment of the learning context and targets of the study, and the development of an assessment framework following the National Research Center's report, "Designing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards" (2014), including the principled assessment evidence-centered-design methodology. Data gathering, and interpretation strategies will include Experts' Review of the design approach, a focus group of teachers (n=8), and one-on-one cognitive interviews with students (n=20), conducted by researchers, which will be recorded to determine the quality and usability of the assessments using qualitative methods. The ultimate outcome of the proposed work will be a design approach for creating assessment tasks in a principled way across science disciplines for early elementary grade students. An advisory board will provide formative assessment feedback to the research team.

Articulating a Transformative Approach for Designing Tasks that Measure Young Learners' Developing Proficiencies in Integrated Science and Literacy (Collaborative Research: Billman)

The main goal of this study will be to conduct exploratory-design work to produce both the design approach and the early-stage tasks that are critical inputs for creating a program of research and development to more fully develop a suite of innovative assessment tasks for the early grades.

Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1853951
Funding Period: 
Sat, 12/15/2018 to Sat, 11/30/2019
Full Description: 

SRI International, University of California-Berkeley (Lawrence Hall of Science), and WestEd will join efforts to articulate a potentially transformative approach for designing new kinds of classroom-based, three-dimensional assessment tasks that measure first graders' proficiencies in integrated science and literacy learning. The main goal of this study will be to conduct exploratory-design work to produce both the design approach and the early-stage tasks that are critical inputs for creating a program of research and development to more fully develop a suite of innovative assessment tasks for the early grades. Specific goals of the effort will be: (1) to iteratively develop and refine a design approach that enables assessment designers to develop Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)-aligned tasks and rubrics that include a literacy component for the early grades; (2) to use this design approach to create two exemplar assessment tasks that are feasible for classroom use; and (3) to collect initial evidence that informs the promise of the design approach.

The work's research question will be: How can we extend current methodology to create assessments that integrate the three dimensions of the NGSS and literacy for early learners? The study will select first grade as the learning environment and two of the NGSS first grade performance expectations as the assessment targets. First grade students are typically at a critical point in developing their language and literacy proficiencies, which will allow the team to take on the challenges of variation in language and literacy skills. Correspondingly, the study will select two NGSS first grade life sciences performance expectations, because they include direct ties to literacy practices in science: (1) From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes (Read texts and use media to determine patterns in behavior of parents and offspring that help offspring survive); and (2) Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits (Make observations to construct an evidence-based account that young plants and animals are like, but not exactly like their parents). The design phase of the activity will consist of an assessment of the learning context and targets of the study, and the development of an assessment framework following the National Research Center's report, "Designing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards" (2014), including the principled assessment evidence-centered-design methodology. Data gathering, and interpretation strategies will include Experts' Review of the design approach, a focus group of teachers (n=8), and one-on-one cognitive interviews with students (n=20), conducted by researchers, which will be recorded to determine the quality and usability of the assessments using qualitative methods. The ultimate outcome of the proposed work will be a design approach for creating assessment tasks in a principled way across science disciplines for early elementary grade students. An advisory board will provide formative assessment feedback to the research team.

CAREER: Cultivating Teachers' Epistemic Empathy to Promote Responsive Teaching

This CAREER award aims to study the construct of "epistemic empathy" and examine how it can be cultivated in science and mathematics teacher education, how it functions to promote responsive teaching, and how it shapes learners' engagement in the classroom. In the context of this project, epistemic empathy is defined as the act of understanding and appreciating another's cognitive and emotional experience within an epistemic activity aimed at the construction, communication, and critique of knowledge.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1844453
Funding Period: 
Mon, 07/01/2019 to Sun, 06/30/2024
Full Description: 

When students perceive that their sense-making resources, including their cultural, linguistic, and everyday experiences, are not relevant to their science and mathematics classrooms, they may view these fields as inaccessible to them. This in turn creates an obstacle to their engagement and active participation which becomes particularly consequential for students from traditionally underrepresented populations. This issue points at the pressing need to prepare science and mathematics teachers to open up their instruction to students’ diverse ideas and meaning-making repertoires. This CAREER award aims to address this need by studying the construct of teachers’ "epistemic empathy” which is defined as the act of understanding and appreciating another's cognitive and emotional experience within an epistemic activity—an activity aimed at the construction, communication, and critique of knowledge. Through epistemic empathy, teachers take learners' perspectives and identify with their sense-making experiences in service of fostering their inquiries. The project’s goals are to examine how epistemic empathy can be cultivated in science and mathematics teacher education, how it functions to promote responsive teaching, and how it shapes learners' engagement in the classroom.

The five research questions will be: (1) Do the ways in which pre-service teachers display epistemic empathy change throughout a course aimed at promoting attention to and knowledge about learners’ varied ways of knowing in science and mathematics?; (2) How do the teaching domain and teaching context influence how teachers express epistemic empathy, and the concerns and tensions they report around empathizing with learners’ thinking and emotions?; (3) How does epistemic empathy shape the ways in which teachers understand and reflect on their roles, goals, and priorities as science or mathematics teachers?; (4) How does epistemic empathy shape teachers’ responsiveness to student thinking and emotions during instruction?; and (5) How does teachers’ epistemic empathy influence how students orient and respond to each other’s thinking in science and mathematics classrooms?

To address these questions, the project will conduct a series of design-based research studies working with science and mathematics pre-service and in-service K-12 teachers (n=140) to design, implement, and analyze ways to elicit and cultivate their epistemic empathy. Further, the project will explore how epistemic empathy shapes teachers’ views of their roles, goals, and priorities as science or mathematics teachers and how it influences their enactment of responsive teaching practices. The project will also examine the influence of teachers’ epistemic empathy on student engagement, in particular in the ways students attend and respond to each other’s epistemic experiences in the classroom. Data collection will include video and audio recording of teacher education and professional development sessions; collection of teachers’ work within those sessions such as their responses to a pre- and post- video assessment task and their written analyses of different videos of student inquiry; interviews with the teachers; and videos from the teachers’ own instruction as well as teachers’ reflections on these videos in stimulated recall interviews. These data will be analyzed using both qualitative methods (i.e., discourse analysis, interaction analysis) and quantitative methods (i.e., blind coding, descriptive statistics). The project’s outcomes will be: (1) an instructional model that targets epistemic empathy as a pedagogical resource for teachers, with exemplars of activities and tasks aimed at developing teachers' attunement to and ways of leveraging learners' meaning-making repertoires (2) local theory of teachers' learning to epistemically empathize with learners in science and mathematics; and (3) empirical descriptions of how epistemic empathy functions to guide and shape teachers' responsiveness and students' engagement. An advisory board will provide feedback on the project’s progress, as well as formative and summative evaluation.

An Integrated Approach to Early Elementary Earth and Space Science

This project will study if, how, and under what circumstances an integration of literacy strategies, hands-on inquiry-based investigations, and planetarium experiences supports the development of science practices (noticing, recognizing change, making predictions, and constructing explanations) in early elementary level students. The project will generate knowledge about how astronomy-focused storybooks, hands-on investigations, and planetarium experiences can be integrated to develop age-appropriate science practices in very young children.

Award Number: 
1813189
Funding Period: 
Sat, 09/01/2018 to Mon, 08/31/2020
Full Description: 

State science standards increasingly emphasize the importance of engaging K-12 students directly in natural phenomena and providing opportunities to construct explanations grounded in evidence. Moreover, these state science standards introduce earth and space science content in the early elementary grades. This creates a critical need for new pedagogies, materials, and resources for science teachers in all grades, but the need is particularly urgent in grades K-3 where teachers have had little preparation to teach science, let alone astronomy. There is also growing consensus that when learning opportunities in formal and informal settings are closely aligned, children's science literacy is developed in ways greater than either setting can achieve alone. The investigators will study if, how, and under what circumstances an integration of literacy strategies, hands-on inquiry-based investigations, and planetarium experiences supports the development of science practices (noticing, recognizing change, making predictions, and constructing explanations) in early elementary level students. This project will generate knowledge about how astronomy-focused storybooks, hands-on investigations, and planetarium experiences can be integrated to develop age-appropriate science practices in very young children (noticing, recognizing change, making predictions, and constructing explanations).

Emergent research on the development of children's science thinking indicates that when young children are engaged with science-focused storybooks and activities that each highlight the same phenomenon, children notice and gather evidence, make predictions and claims based on evidence, and provide explanations grounded in the experiences provided to them. This project has two phases. In Phase 1, first and third grade teachers will be recruited. They will help identify specific learner needs as these relate to the earth and space science standards in their grade band, assist in the development and pilot testing of a prototype instructional sequence and supporting activities taking place within their classrooms and at a local planetarium. In Phase 2, the revised learning sequence and research protocol will be implemented with the same teachers and a new cohort of children. The mixed method research design includes video observations, teacher interviews, and teacher and student surveys. Data analysis will focus on science practices, connections across contexts (e.g., school and planetarium), and instructional adaptations. The project involves a research-practice collaboration between the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Rockman & Associates, the Lawrence Hall of Science at the University of California, Berkeley, and West Chester University.

Pages

Subscribe to Early State/Exploratory