Impact

Comparing the Efficacy of Collaborative Professional Development Formats for Improving Student Outcomes of a Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnership Program

The goal of this project is to study how the integration of an online curriculum, scientist mentoring of students, and professional development for both teachers and scientist mentors can improve student outcomes. In this project, teachers and scientist mentors will engage collaboratively in a professional development module which focuses on photosynthesis and cellular respiration and is an example of a student-teacher-scientist partnership.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
2010556
Funding Period: 
Tue, 09/01/2020 to Sun, 08/31/2025
Full Description: 

Science classrooms in the U.S. today increasingly expect students to engage in the practices of science in a way that help them form a deeper understanding of disciplinary core ideas and the practices by which science is done. To do this, students should learn how scientists work and communicate. It also calls for changes in how teachers teach science, which in turn creates a need for high-quality professional development so they can be more effective in the classroom. Professional scientists can also benefit from training preparing them to support teachers, motivate students, and model for students how scientists think and work. Preparing teachers and scientists through collaborative professional development can help maximize the impact they can have on student outcomes. To have the broadest impact, such professional development should be cost-effective and available to teachers in rural or underserved areas. This project focuses on high school life science (biology) teachers and their students. It will make use of an online mentoring platform, a student-teacher-scientist partnership program established in 2005. That study found that implementing in combination with high-quality, in-person collaborative teacher/scientist professional development resulted in positive and statistically significant effects on student achievement and attitudes versus business-as-usual methods of teaching the same science content. This project has two main components: 1) a replication study to determine if findings of the previous successful study hold true; and 2) adding an online format for delivering collaborative professional development to teachers and scientists enabling one to compare the effectiveness of online professional development and in-person professional development delivery formats for improving student outcomes.

The goal of this project is to study how the integration of an online curriculum, scientist mentoring of students, and professional development for both teachers and scientist mentors can improve student outcomes. In this project, teachers and scientist mentors will engage collaboratively in a professional development module which focuses on photosynthesis and cellular respiration and is an example of a student-teacher-scientist partnership. Teachers will use their training to teach the curriculum to their students with students receiving mentoring from the scientists through an online platform. Evaluation will examine whether this curriculum, professional development, and mentoring by scientists will improve student achievement on science content and attitudes toward scientists. The project will use mixed-methods approaches to explore potential factors underlying efficacy differences between in-person and online professional development. An important component of this project is comparing in-person professional development to an online delivery of professional development, which can be more cost-effective and accessible by teachers, especially those in rural and underserved areas.

The Discovery Research K-12 program (DRK-12) seeks to significantly enhance the learning and teaching of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by preK-12 students and teachers, through research and development of innovative resources, models, and tools. Projects in the DRK-12 program build on fundamental research in STEM education and prior research and development efforts that provide theoretical and empirical justification for proposed

This award reflects NSF's statutory mission and has been deemed worthy of support through evaluation using the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts review criteria.

Improving the Teaching of Genetics in High School to Avoid Instilling Misconceptions about Gender Differences (Collaborative Research: Riegle-Crumb)

This project will study the aspects of genetics instruction that affect students' beliefs in neurogenetic essentialism, which is implicated in lowering girls' sense of STEM abilities, feeling of belonging in STEM classes, and interest in pursuing further education in STEM fields. The goal of the project is to answer important questions about how to teach genetics at the high school level in a manner that is scientifically accurate but does not have these detrimental side effects.

Lead Organization(s): 
Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1956119
Funding Period: 
Wed, 07/01/2020 to Mon, 06/30/2025
Full Description: 

Recent research suggests that learning about genetics during high school biology can lead to a belief that inherent differences in the genes and brains of men and women are the main causes of gender differences in behavior and intellectual abilities (a belief known as neurogenetic essentialism). This belief is implicated in lowering girls' sense of their own STEM abilities, their feelings of belonging in STEM classes, and their interest in pursuing further education in STEM fields. The goal of this project, led by a team of researchers at Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, the University of Texas, Austin, and New York University is to answer important questions about how to teach genetics at the high school level in a manner that is scientifically accurate, but does not have these detrimental side effects. Specifically, this new line of experimental research will identify and revise the content in common genetics instruction that promotes the belief in neurogenetic essentialism. The proposed experiments will also explore how the beliefs of peers and teachers contribute to changes in such beliefs in students. This work has further implications for how the topic of differences between men and women is addressed during high school biology education. Furthermore, the research findings will advance theory on factors that contribute to gender disparities in STEM attitudes and aspirations.

Building on preliminary evidence, this project aims to accomplish four key goals. First, the project will study which specific aspects of genetics instruction affect students' beliefs in neurogenetic essentialism. Second, the project will identify the cognitive mechanisms through which these effects occur. Third, the project will uncover the downstream effects of revised genetics instructional materials on a broad range of motivational variables relevant to STEM pursuit, such as implicit person theories, sense of belonging in STEM, and interest in this domain. Fourth, the project will explore the contextual factors (e.g., teacher and peer beliefs) that may moderate or mediate how students respond to the instructional materials. The research team will develop and iteratively refine genetics educational materialsthat teach about genetic, neurological, and behavioral variation within and between sexes, as well as the social causes of such differences. The research team will then test the effectiveness of these revised materials through two large-scale randomized control trials, one targeting students directly and one targeting students' learning via their teachers. The results of this project will produce generalizable knowledge regarding the cognitive, sociological, and educational factors that contribute to STEM gender disparities.

Developing Leaders, Transforming Practice in K-5 Mathematics: An Examination of Models for Elementary Mathematics Specialists (Collaborative Research: Lewis)

This project will study the Developing Leaders Transforming Practice (DLTP) intervention, which aims to improve teachers' instructional practices, increase student mathematics understanding and achievement.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1906588
Funding Period: 
Sun, 09/01/2019 to Thu, 08/31/2023
Full Description: 

Minimal rigorous research has been conducted on the effect of various supports for quality mathematics instruction and providing guidance on the development and use of Elementary Mathematics Specialists (EMSs) on student achievement. Portland Public Schools (PPS), Portland State University, and RMC Research Corporation will study the Developing Leaders Transforming Practice (DLTP) intervention, which aims to improve teachers' instructional practices, increase student mathematics understanding and achievement. The project team will evaluate the efficacy and use of EMSs by testing four implementation models that consider the various ways EMSs are integrated into schools. DLTP builds on EMS research, investigating EMSs both as elementary mathematics teachers and coaches by articulating four models and examining their efficacy for both student and teacher learning. This study has the potential to provide benefits both within and beyond PPS as it informs the preparation and use of EMSs. Determining which model is best in certain contexts provides a focus for the expansion of mathematics support.

DLTP enhances the research base by examining the effect of teacher PD on student achievement through a rigorous quasi-experimental design. The project goals will be met by addressing 4 research questions: 1) What is the effect of the intervention on teacher leadership?; 2) What is the effect of the intervention on teachers' use of research-based instructional practices?; 3) What is the effect of the intervention on a school's ability to sustain ongoing professional learning for teachers?; and 4) What is the effect of the intervention on student mathematics achievement? Twelve elementary schools in PPS will select elementary teachers to participate in the DLTP and adopt an implementation model that ranges from direct to diffuse engagement with students: elementary mathematics teacher, grade level coach, grade-level and building-level coach, or building-level coach. The research team will conduct 4 major studies that include rigorous quasi-experimental designs and a multi-method approach to address the research questions: leadership study, instructional practices study, school study, and student achievement study. Several tools will be created by the project - a leadership rubric designed to measure changes in EMS mathematics leadership because of the project and a 5-part teacher survey designed capture EMS leadership skills, pedagogical content knowledge, use of research-based practices, and school climate for mathematics learning as well as implementation issues.

Developing Leaders, Transforming Practice in K-5 Mathematics: An Examination of Models for Elementary Mathematics Specialists Collaborative Research: Davis)

This project will study the Developing Leaders Transforming Practice (DLTP) intervention, which aims to improve teachers' instructional practices, increase student mathematics understanding and achievement.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1906565
Funding Period: 
Sun, 09/01/2019 to Thu, 08/31/2023
Full Description: 

Minimal rigorous research has been conducted on the effect of various supports for quality mathematics instruction and providing guidance on the development and use of Elementary Mathematics Specialists (EMSs) on student achievement. Portland Public Schools (PPS), Portland State University, and RMC Research Corporation will study the Developing Leaders Transforming Practice (DLTP) intervention, which aims to improve teachers' instructional practices, increase student mathematics understanding and achievement. The project team will evaluate the efficacy and use of EMSs by testing four implementation models that consider the various ways EMSs are integrated into schools. DLTP builds on EMS research, investigating EMSs both as elementary mathematics teachers and coaches by articulating four models and examining their efficacy for both student and teacher learning. This study has the potential to provide benefits both within and beyond PPS as it informs the preparation and use of EMSs. Determining which model is best in certain contexts provides a focus for the expansion of mathematics support.

DLTP enhances the research base by examining the effect of teacher PD on student achievement through a rigorous quasi-experimental design. The project goals will be met by addressing 4 research questions: 1) What is the effect of the intervention on teacher leadership?; 2) What is the effect of the intervention on teachers' use of research-based instructional practices?; 3) What is the effect of the intervention on a school's ability to sustain ongoing professional learning for teachers?; and 4) What is the effect of the intervention on student mathematics achievement? Twelve elementary schools in PPS will select elementary teachers to participate in the DLTP and adopt an implementation model that ranges from direct to diffuse engagement with students: elementary mathematics teacher, grade level coach, grade-level and building-level coach, or building-level coach. The research team will conduct 4 major studies that include rigorous quasi-experimental designs and a multi-method approach to address the research questions: leadership study, instructional practices study, school study, and student achievement study. Several tools will be created by the project - a leadership rubric designed to measure changes in EMS mathematics leadership because of the project and a 5-part teacher survey designed capture EMS leadership skills, pedagogical content knowledge, use of research-based practices, and school climate for mathematics learning as well as implementation issues.

Developing Leaders, Transforming Practice in K-5 Mathematics: An Examination of Models for Elementary Mathematics Specialists Collaborative Research: Rigelman)

This project will study the Developing Leaders Transforming Practice (DLTP) intervention, which aims to develop teacher leaders, improve teachers' instructional practices, and increase student mathematics understanding and achievement.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1906682
Funding Period: 
Sun, 09/01/2019 to Thu, 08/31/2023
Project Evaluator: 
RMC Research
Full Description: 

Minimal rigorous research has been conducted on the effect of various supports for quality mathematics instruction and providing guidance on the development and use of Elementary Mathematics Specialists (EMSs) on student achievement. Portland Public Schools (PPS), Portland State University, and RMC Research Corporation will study the Developing Leaders Transforming Practice (DLTP) intervention, which aims to improve teachers' instructional practices, increase student mathematics understanding and achievement. The project team will evaluate the efficacy and use of EMSs by testing four implementation models that consider the various ways EMSs are integrated into schools. DLTP builds on EMS research, investigating EMSs both as elementary mathematics teachers and coaches by articulating four models and examining their efficacy for both student and teacher learning. This study has the potential to provide benefits both within and beyond PPS as it informs the preparation and use of EMSs. Determining which model is best in certain contexts provides a focus for the expansion of mathematics support.

DLTP enhances the research base by examining the effect of teacher PD on student achievement through a rigorous quasi-experimental design. The project goals will be met by addressing 4 research questions: 1) What is the effect of the intervention on teacher leadership?; 2) What is the effect of the intervention on teachers' use of research-based instructional practices?; 3) What is the effect of the intervention on a school's ability to sustain ongoing professional learning for teachers?; and 4) What is the effect of the intervention on student mathematics achievement? Twelve elementary schools in PPS will select elementary teachers to participate in the DLTP and adopt an implementation model that ranges from direct to diffuse engagement with students: elementary mathematics teacher, grade level coach, grade-level and building-level coach, or building-level coach. The research team will conduct 4 major studies that include rigorous quasi-experimental designs and a multi-method approach to address the research questions: leadership study, instructional practices study, school study, and student achievement study. Several tools will be created by the project - a leadership rubric designed to measure changes in EMS mathematics leadership because of the project and a 5-part teacher survey designed capture EMS leadership skills, pedagogical content knowledge, use of research-based practices, and school climate for mathematics learning as well as implementation issues.

Learning Trajectories as a Complete Early Mathematics Intervention: Achieving Efficacies of Economies at Scale

The purpose of this project is to test the efficacy of the Learning and Teaching with Learning Trajectories (LT2) program with the goal of improving mathematics teaching and thereby increasing young students' math learning. LT2 is a professional development tool and a curriculum resource intended for teachers to be used to support early math instruction and includes the mathematical learning goal, the developmental progression, and relevant instructional activities.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1908889
Funding Period: 
Mon, 07/01/2019 to Sun, 06/30/2024
Full Description: 

U.S. proficiency in mathematics continues to be low and early math performance is a powerful predictor of long-term academic success and employability. However, relatively few early childhood degree programs have any curriculum requirements focused on key mathematics topics. Thus, teacher professional development programs offer a viable and promising method for supporting and improving teachers' instructional approaches to mathematics and thus, improving student math outcomes. The purpose of this project is to test the efficacy of the Learning and Teaching with Learning Trajectories (LT2) program with the goal of improving mathematics teaching and thereby increasing young students' math learning. LT2 is a professional development tool and a curriculum resource intended for teachers to be used to support early math instruction. The LT2 program modules uniquely include the mathematical learning goal, the developmental progression, and relevant instructional activities. All three aspects are critical for high-quality and coherent mathematics instruction in the early grades.

This project will address the following research questions: 1) What are the medium-range effects of LT2 on student achievement and the achievement gap? 2) What are the short- and long-term effects of LT2 on teacher instructional approach, beliefs, and quality? and 3) How cost effective is the LT2 intervention relative to the original Building Blocks intervention? To address the research questions, this project will conduct a multisite cluster randomized experimental design, with 90 schools randomly assigned within school districts to either experimental or control groups. Outcome measures for the approximately 250 kindergarten classrooms across these districts will include the Research-based Elementary Math Assessment, observations of instructional quality, a questionnaire focused on teacher beliefs and practices, in addition to school level administrative data. Data will be analyzed using multi-level regression models to determine the effect of the Learning Trajectories intervention on student learning.

Aligning the Science Teacher Education Pathway: A Networked Improvement Community

This project will study the activities of a Networked Improvement Community (NIC) as a vehicle to bridge gaps across four identified steps along the science teacher training and development pathways within local contexts of 8 participating universities. The overarching goal of the project is to strengthen the capacity of universities and school districts to reliably produce teachers of science who are knowledgeable about and can effectively enact the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), although prepared in varied organizational contexts.

Award Number: 
1908900
Funding Period: 
Mon, 07/01/2019 to Fri, 06/30/2023
Full Description: 

California State University will study the activities of a Networked Improvement Community (NIC) as a vehicle to bridge gaps across four identified steps along the science teacher training and development pathways within local contexts of 8 participating universities (NIC sites). Networked Improvement Community (NIC) will co-create a shared vision and co-defined research agenda between university researchers, science educators and school district practitioners working together to reform teacher education across a variety of local contexts. By studying outcomes of shared supports and teacher tools for use in multiple steps along the science teacher education pathway, researchers will map variation existing in the system and align efforts across the science teacher education pathway. This process will integrate an iterative nature of educational change in local contexts impacting enactment of the NGSS in both university teacher preparation programs and in school district professional training activities and classrooms.

The overarching goal of the project is to strengthen the capacity of universities and school districts to reliably produce teachers of science who are knowledgeable about and can effectively enact the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), although prepared in varied organizational contexts. The project will accomplish this goal 1) leveraging the use of an established Networked Improvement Community, composed of science education faculty from eight university campuses and by 2) improving and studying coherence in the steps along the science teacher education pathway within and across these universities and school districts. The project will use a mixed methods approach to data collection and analysis. Consistent with Improvement Science Theory, research questions will be co-defined by all stakeholders.

LabVenture - Revealing Systemic Impacts of a 12-Year Statewide Science Field Trip Program

This project will examine the impact of a 12-year statewide science field trip program called LabVenture, a hands-on program in discovery and inquiry that brings middle school students and teachers across the state of Maine to the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (GMRI) to become fully immersed in explorations into the complexities of local marine science ecosystems.

Award Number: 
1811452
Funding Period: 
Sat, 09/01/2018 to Thu, 08/31/2023
Full Description: 

This research in service to practice project will examine the impact of a 12-year statewide science field trip program called LabVenture. This hands-on program in discovery and inquiry brings middle school students and teachers across the state of Maine to the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (GMRI) in Portland, Maine to become fully immersed in explorations into the complexities of local marine science ecosystems. These intensive field trip experiences are led by informal educators and facilitated entirely within informal contexts at GMRI. Approximately 70% of all fifth and sixth grade students in Maine participate in the program each year and more than 120,000 students have attended since the program's inception in 2005. Unfortunately, little is known to date on how the program has influenced practice and learning ecosystems within formal, informal, and community contexts. As such, this research in service to practice project will employ an innovative research approach to understand and advance knowledge on the short and long-term impacts of the program within different contexts. If proven effective, the LabVenture program will elucidate the potential benefits of a large-scale field trip program implemented systemically across a community over time and serve as a reputable model for statewide adoption of similar programs seeking innovative strategies to connect formal and informal science learning to achieve notable positive shifts in their local, statewide, or regional STEM learning ecosystems.

Over the four-year project duration, the project will reach all 16 counties in the State of Maine. The research design includes a multi-step, multi-method approach to gain insight on the primary research questions. The initial research will focus on extant data and retrospective data sources codified over the 12-year history of the program. The research will then be expanded to garner prospective data on current participating students, teachers, and informal educators. Finally, a community study will be conducted to understand the potential broader impacts of the program. Each phase of the research will consider the following overarching research questions are: (1) How do formal and informal practitioners perceive the value and purposes of the field trip program and field trip experiences more broadly (field trip ontology)? (2) To what degree do short-term field trip experiences in informal contexts effect cognitive and affective outcomes for students? (3) How are community characteristics (e.g., population, distance from GMRI, proximity to the coast) related to ongoing engagement with the field trip program? (4) What are aspects of the ongoing field trip program that might embed it as an integral element of community culture (e.g., community awareness of a shared social experience)? (5) To what degree does a field trip experience that is shared by schools across a state lead to a traceable change that can be measured for those who participated and across the broader community? and (6) In what ways, if at all, can a field trip experience that occurs in informal contexts have an influence on the larger learning ecosystem (e.g., the Maine education system)? Each phase of the research will be led by a team of researchers with the requisite expertise in the methodologies and contexts required to carry out that particular aspect of the research (i.e., retrospective study, prospective study, community study). In addition, evaluation and practitioner panels of experts will provide expertise and guidance on the research, evaluation, and project implementation. The project will culminate with a practitioner convening, to share project findings more broadly with formal and informal practitioners, and promote transfer from research to practice. Additional dissemination strategies include conferences, network meetings, and peer-reviewed publications.

Investigating Impact of Different Types of Professional Development on What Aspects Mathematics Teachers Take Up and Use in Their Classroom

This project will study the design and development of PD that supports teacher development and student learning, and provide accumulation of evidence to inform teacher educators, administrators, teachers, and policymakers of factors associated with successful PD experiences and variation across teachers and types of PDs.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1813439
Funding Period: 
Sun, 07/01/2018 to Wed, 06/30/2021
Full Description: 

Professional development is a critical way in which teachers who are currently in classrooms learn about changes in mathematics teaching and learning and improve their practice. Little is known about what types of professional development (PD) support teachers' improved practice and student learning. However, federal, state, and local governments spend resources on helping teachers improve their teaching practice and students' learning. PD programs vary in their intent and can fall on a continuum from highly adaptive, with great latitude in the implementation, to highly specified, with little ability to adapt the program during implementation. The project will study the design and development of PD that supports teacher development and student learning, and provide accumulation of evidence to inform teacher educators, administrators, teachers, and policymakers of factors associated with successful PD experiences and variation across teachers and types of PDs. The impact study will expand on the evidence of promise from four 2015 National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded projects - two adaptive, two specified - to provide evidence of the impact of the projects on teachers' instructional practice over time. Although the four projects are different in terms of structure and design elements, they all share the goal to support challenging mathematics content, practice standards, and differentiation techniques to support culturally and linguistically diverse, underrepresented populations. Understanding the nature of the professional development including structure and design elements, and unpacking what teachers take up and use in their instructional practice potentially has widespread use to support student learning in diverse contexts, especially those serving disadvantaged and underrepresented student populations.

This study will examine teachers' uptake of mathematics content, pedagogy and materials from different types of professional development in order to understand and unpack the factors that are associated with what teachers take up and use two-three years beyond their original PD experience: Two specified 1) An Efficacy Study of the Learning and Teaching Geometry PD Materials: Examining Impact and Context-Based Adaptations (Jennifer Jacobs, Karen Koellner & Nanette Seago), 2) Visual Access to Mathematics: Professional Development for Teachers of English Learners (Mark Driscoll, Johanna Nikula, & Pamela Buffington), two adaptive: 3) Refining a Model with Tools to Develop Math PD Leaders: An Implementation Study (Hilda Borko & Janet Carlson), 4), TRUmath and Lesson Study: Supporting Fundamental and Sustainable Improvement in High School Mathematics Teaching (Suzanne Donovan, Phil Tucher, & Catherine Lewis). The project will utilize a multi-case method which centers on a common focus of what content, pedagogy and materials teachers take up from PD experiences. Using a specified sampling procedure, the project will select 8 teachers from each of the four PD projects to serve as case study teachers. Subsequently, the project will conduct a cross case analysis focusing on variation among and between teachers and different types of PD. The research questions that guide the project's impact study are: RQ1: What is the nature of what teachers take up and use after participating in professional development workshops? RQ2: What factors influence what teachers take up and use and in what ways? RQ3: How does a professional development's position on the specified-adaptive continuum affect what teachers take up and use?

Moving Beyond Pedagogy: Developing Elementary Teachers' Adaptive Expertise in Using the Epistemic Complexity of Science

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) emphasize the integration of scientific knowledge and the practices of science, a recognition that science classrooms are complex learning environments. Meeting this expectation requires teachers to move beyond traditional routines of practice to become adaptive experts who can adjust their teaching to maximize learning in varied classroom situations.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1812576
Funding Period: 
Tue, 05/15/2018 to Sat, 04/30/2022
Full Description: 

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) emphasize the integration of scientific knowledge and the practices of science, a recognition that science classrooms are complex learning environments. Meeting this expectation requires teachers to move beyond traditional routines of practice to become adaptive experts who can adjust their teaching to maximize learning in varied classroom situations. A teacher who has adaptive expertise is defined as someone who can self-assess and strategically adjust decision-making before, during and after teaching episodes. To become adaptive experts, teachers must understand the foundational ways that scientific knowledge is advanced and develop knowledge of, and practices related to, using argument, language, and dialogical environments--individually and collectively--as tools for learning science. To effectively use these tools requires teachers to shift from viewing science teaching as the transfer or replication of knowledge through routines of practices to one in which students are participants in a more cognitively based approach to learning. How teachers develop adaptive expertise for NGSS-aligned learning environments is still little understood. This project will examine the complex nature of the relationship between these learning tools and teacher orientation that enables teachers to develop adaptive expertise over the course of a multi-year professional development program.

The project will work with 150 Grade 3-5 teachers in Iowa and Alabama to implement a three-year professional development program to assist teachers develop adaptive expertise. Through implementation of an argument-based inquiry approach focused on development of adaptiveness, teachers will be supported as they shift their expertise from routine to adaptiveness. Project data will include teachers' implementation of the approach, their understanding of science argument, and their shifting epistemic orientation. The project will examine selected case studies of teachers to better understand the variations in development of adaptive expertise. The project outcome will be a model of adaptive expertise that can be used by in-service and pre-service educators to advance teacher practices towards adaptive expertise. The aim is to design ways to transfer adaptive expertise to students in STEM. The mixed-method project will integrate analyses with a focus on understanding complexity, using large-scale quantitative data.

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