Pre-Kindergarten

Early Childhood Education in the Context of Mathematics, Science, and Literacy

This curriculum project is using empirically-tested mathematics and science programs and research-based approaches to develop a six module interdisciplinary curriculum for pre-K students. Mathematics and science content is included with literacy/language and social-emotional development. The curriculum is being designed to counter the frequent situation of devoting most pre-school instructional time to literacy by having activities that join literacy with mathematics and science.

Lead Organization(s): 
Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1313718
Funding Period: 
Sat, 09/01/2012 to Mon, 08/31/2015
Full Description: 

The Mathematics, Science, and Literacy (MSL) curriculum project is using empirically-tested mathematics and science programs and research-based approaches to develop a six module interdisciplinary curriculum for pre-K students. Mathematics and science content is included with literacy/language and social-emotional development. The curriculum is being designed to counter the frequent situation of devoting most pre-school instructional time to literacy by having activities that join literacy with mathematics and science. The project is housed at the University of Buffalo, but also has sites at Rutgers University New Brunswick and Michigan State University. A detailed process, a curriculum development framework that has been used to develop prior curriculum materials is being used for developing the MSL curriculum. The design of the materials is giving strong attention to being viable for at-risk students.

The MSL materials are research-based and incorporate learning trajectories developed from prior work. The materials are being developed in the first two years of the project and piloted by a four teachers at each of the three sites. In the third year of the four year project, the materials will be piloted by four different teachers at each of the three sites. Formative evaluation data are being used to revise the materials. Pretests and posttests in each of the three content areas are being used to measure improved learning. An external evaluator is verifying the analyses of data and that valid conclusions are being made. The development effort includes attending to the professional development needs of teachers who will be using the six module pre-K curriculum and teachers who will have students who have completed the curriculum.

The main deliverable will be the research-based six module curriculum for pre-K mathematics, science, and literacy. In addition, a detailed formative evaluation of the curriculum's creation and implementation is being produced along with a detailed description and evaluation of the curriculum model used. A publisher has indicated interest in publishing the materials and is interacting with the developers throughout the process. There is a potential that the interdisciplinary curriculum will be widely used. The curriculum is being designed using the most current learning trajectories with the expectations that these will particularly helpful for at risk students.

This project was previously funded under award # 1020118.

Using Rule Space and Poset-Based Adaptive Testing Methodologies to Identify Ability Patterns in Early Mathematics and Create a Comprehensive Mathematics Ability Test

This project will develop a new assessment for children ages 3-7 to provide teachers with diagnostic information on a child's development of mathematics facility on ten domains such as counting, sequencing, adding/subtracting, and measurement. The Comprehensive Research-based Mathematics Ability (CREMAT) is being developed using innovative psychometric models to reveal information about children on specific attributes for each of the 10 domains.

Project Email: 
Lead Organization(s): 
Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1313695
Funding Period: 
Sat, 09/01/2012 to Wed, 02/28/2018
Full Description: 

A new assessment for children ages 3-7 is being developed to provide teachers with diagnostic information on a child's development of mathematics facility on ten domains such as counting, sequencing, adding/subtracting, and measurement. The Comprehensive Research-based Mathematics Assessment (CREMA) is being developed using innovative psychometric models to reveal information about children on specific attributes for each of the 10 domains. The CREMA will produce information based on carefully developed learning trajectories in a relative short period of time by using computer adaptive testing. The project is guided by two goals: 1) to produce a cognitively diagnostic adaptive assessment that will yield more useful and detailed information about students' knowledge of mathematics than previously possible, and 2) subject the developmental progressions to close cognitive diagnosis using cutting-edge psychometric approaches. An item pool of about 350 items is being developed that can be used to identify the level of understanding children ages 3-7 have on the 10 domains that have been identified as foundational to further learning in mathematics. A research team headed by Dr. Douglas Clements at the University of Buffalo is conducting the development work while being assisted by Dr. Curtis Tatsuoka, a statistician at Case Western Reserve University.

The CREMA is being developed using leading-edge psychometric models based on Q-Matrix theory, rule-state models, and posets. The initial item pool includes items from the REMA, a previously developed instrument based on unidemensional IRT models. New items are being piloted with at least 200 students from a group of a total of 800 students evenly distributed among pre-K to grade 2. The successful items then are used to create the new CREMA. The new assessment is being field tested with 300 children, pre-K to grade 2. A random sample of 50 students (at least 10 from each grade) is being video taped as they work the items. Specific criteria of convergence are being used for feedback on how specific items are performing to meet the required specifications. An external evaluator is auditing the process and is doing spot checks of item codings and other analyses performed.

The main product will be the CREMA that will be made widely available. This instrument using computer adaptive testing will provide teachers with ready information on young children's understanding of critical mathematical ideas. The new psychometric models that will be used and developed to process multiple attributes from individual items will make large strives to move forward the field of mathematics assessment of young children. A publisher has expressed interest to make the assessment widely available that increases the likelihood the assessment will have large impact on early childhood mathematics learning.

This project was previously funded under award # 1019925.

Supports for Science and Mathematics Learning in Pre-Kindergarten Dual Language Learners: Designing a Professional Development System

SciMath-DLL is an innovative preschool professional development (PD) model that integrates supports for DLLs with high quality science and mathematics instructional offerings. It engages teachers with workshops, classroom-based coaching, and professional learning communities.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1726082
Funding Period: 
Sun, 08/15/2010 to Sat, 06/30/2018
Project Evaluator: 
Open Minds LLC
Full Description: 

The 4-year project, Supports for Science and Mathematics Learning in Pre-Kindergarten Dual Language Learners: Designing and Expanding a Professional Development System (SciMath-DLL), will address a number of educational challenges. Global society requires citizens and a workforce that are literate in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), but many U.S. students remain ill prepared in these areas. At the same time, the children who fill U.S. classrooms increasingly speak a non-English home language, with the highest concentration in the early grades. Many young children are also at risk for lack of school readiness in language, literacy, mathematics, and science due to family background factors. Educational efforts to offset early risk factors can be successful, with clear links between high quality early learning experiences and later academic outcomes. SciMath-DLL will help teachers provide effective mathematics and science learning experiences for their students. Early educational support is critical to assure that all students, regardless of socioeconomic or linguistic background, learn the STEM content required to become science and mathematics literate. Converging lines of research suggest that participation in sustained mathematics and science learning activities could enhance the school readiness of preschool dual language learners. Positive effects of combining science inquiry with supports for English-language learning have been identified for older students. For preschoolers, sustained science and math learning opportunities enhance language and pre-literacy skills for children learning one language. Mathematics skills and science knowledge also predict later mathematics, science, and reading achievement. What has not been studied is the extent to which rich science and mathematics experiences in preschool lead to better mathematics and science readiness and improved language skills for preschool DLLs. Because the preschool teaching force is not prepared to support STEM learning or to provide effective supports for DLLs, professional development to improve knowledge and practice in these areas is required before children's learning outcomes can be improved.

SciMath-DLL is an innovative preschool professional development (PD) model that integrates supports for DLLs with high quality science and mathematics instructional offerings. It engages teachers with workshops, classroom-based coaching, and professional learning communities. Development and research activities incorporate cycles of design-expert review-enactment- analysis-redesign; collaboration between researcher-educator teams at all project stages; use of multiple kinds of data and data sources to establish claims; and more traditional, experimental methodologies. Based on initial evidence of promise, the SciMath-DLL project will expand PD offerings to include web-based materials, making the PD more flexible for use in a range of educational settings and training circumstances. An efficacy study will be completed to examine the potential of the SciMath-DLL resources, model, and tools to generate positive effects on teacher attitudes, knowledge, and practice for early mathematics and science and on children's readiness in these domains in settings that serve children learning two languages. By creating a suite of tools that can be used under differing educational circumstances to improve professional knowledge, skill, and practice around STEM, the project increases the number of teachers who are prepared to support children as STEM learners and, thus, the number of children who can be supported as STEM learners.

Products:

Journal Articles:

Brenneman, K., Lange, A., & Nayfeld, I. (2018). Integrating STEM into Preschool Education: Designing a Professional Development Model in Diverse Settings. Early Childhood Education Journal, 47(1), 15-28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-018-0912-z

Lange, A. A., Nayfeld, I., Mano, H., & Jung, K. (revise and resubmit). Effects of a professional development model on preschool teachers’ attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge around STEM and teaching DLLs. 

Lange, A. A., Trivette, C., Nayfeld, I., & Mano, H. (in preparation). Impacts of a preschool professional development approach on teaching and coaching practice: A mixed-methods analysis.

Books:

Lange, A. A., Brenneman, K., & Mano, H. (2019). Teaching STEM in the Preschool Classroom: Exploring Big Ideas with 3-5 Year Olds. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Practitioner Publications:

Mano, H., Molina, K., Nayfeld, I., & Lange, A. A. (2019). Planting the Seeds of Engineering: Preschoolers Think about, Talk about, and Solve a Real Problem in the Garden. Science and Children, 57 (2), 80–84.

Lange, A. A., Dias, A., & Brenneman, K. (2016). Reflecting on Teaching Length Measurement to Young Children. Teaching Young Children, 9(5), 24-27. (product from SciMath DRK-12 predecessor project)

Blogs: 

Lange, A.A. (2019). Engaging Preschoolers in STEM: It’s Easier Than You Think! Invited guest blog for the DREME Network. https://dreme.stanford.edu/news/engaging-preschoolers-stem-it-s-easier-you-think 

Lange, A. A. (2015). Early STEM: Fuel for Learning. https://nieer.wordpress.com/2015/10/06/early-stem-fuel-for-learning/ 

Newsletter: www.ecstemlab.com/newsletter

Preschool STEM Institute: www.ecstemlab.com/preschool-stem-institute

This project was previously funded under award #1019576.

Professional Development for Culturally Relevant Teaching and Learning in Pre-K Mathematics

This project is creating and studying a professional development model to support preK teachers in developing culturally and developmentally appropriate practices in counting and early number. The proposed model is targeted at teachers of children in four-year-old kindergarten, and focuses on culturally relevant teaching and learning. The model stresses counting and basic number operations with the intention of exploring the domain as it connects to children's experiences in their homes and communities.

Award Number: 
1019431
Funding Period: 
Wed, 09/01/2010 to Fri, 08/31/2018
Project Evaluator: 
Victoria Jacobs
Full Description: 

Developers and researchers at the University of Wisconsin are creating and studying a professional development model that connects research in counting and early number (CGI), early childhood, and funds of knowledge. The proposed model is targeted at teachers of children in four-year-old kindergarten, and focuses on culturally relevant teaching and learning. The model stresses a specific, circumscribed content domain - counting and basic number operations - with the intention of exploring the domain in depth particularly as it connects to children's experiences in their homes and communities and how it is learned and taught through play.

The project designs, develops, and tests innovative resources and models for teachers to support ongoing professional learning communities. These learning communities are designed to identify and build on the rich mathematical understandings of all pre-K children. The project's specific goals are to instantiate a reciprocal "funds of knowledge" framework for (a) accessing children's out-of-school experiences in order to provide instruction that is equitable and culturally relevant and (b) developing culturally effective ways to support families in understanding how to mathematize their children's out-of-school activities. Teachers are observed weekly during the development and evaluation process and student assessments are used to measure students' progress toward meeting project benchmarks and the program's effectiveness in reducing or eliminating the achievement gap.

The outcome is a complete professional development model that includes written and digital materials. The product includes case studies, classroom video, examples of student work, and strategies for responding to students' understandings.

Pre-K Early Algebra Through Quantitative Reasoning (PreKEA)

This project is initiating an innovative approach to pre-K students' development of quantitative reasoning through measurement. This quantitative approach builds on measurement concepts and algebraic design of the pre-numeric stage of instruction found in the Elkonin-Davydov (E-D) elementary mathematics curriculum from Russia. The project team is adapting and refocusing the conceptual framework and learning tasks of the E-D pre-numeric stage for use with four-year-olds.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1212766
Funding Period: 
Wed, 09/01/2010 to Sat, 08/31/2013
Full Description: 

This is an exploratory project that endeavors to initiate an innovative approach to preK students’ development of quantitative reasoning through measurement. This quantitative approach builds on measurement concepts and algebraic design of the pre-numeric stage of instruction found in the successful Elkonin-Davydov (E-D) elementary mathematics curriculum from Russia. The PreKEA project will adapt and refocus the conceptual framework of the E-D pre-numeric stage with respect to early algebra in the context of teaching experiments with preK and kindergarten students. A primary goal of the project is to obtain a proof-of-concept and lay down a conceptual and empirical foundation for a subsequent full research and development DR K-12 proposal.

The importance of early algebra (EA) in mathematics education has been acknowledged by the publication of a separate chapter solely devoted to early algebra and algebraic reasoning in the second Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning (Lester, 2007). Given that “much prior research highlights the difficulties that middle and high school students have with algebra,” the proponents of EA argue that “the weaving of algebra throughout the K-12 curriculum could lend coherence, depth, and power to school mathematics, and replace late, abrupt, isolated, and superficial high school algebra courses” (Carraher & Schliemann, 2007, pp. 670-671). At the same time, “quantitative thinking is unavoidable in EA” as it “does not seem realistic to first introduce youngsters to the algebra of number and then proceed to problems steeped in quantities as ‘applications’ of algebra” (ibid., p. 671). While the E-D curriculum with its proven track record focuses on the development of quantitative and measurement reasoning among elementary-aged children in grades 1–6, it is feasible that much younger children, even four-year-olds, can access the pre-numeric ideas. This is supported by research by Baillargeon (2001) and Wynn (1997) who showed that infants as young as two-months old demonstrate the development of number and measurement concepts. The PreKEA project will identify key concepts of the E-D pre-numeric stage relevant to four-year-olds and develop and explore lesson units which can be integrated into US preK settings. The project team combines the international expertise of PI Berkaliev who served as project coordinator and international liaison for an NSF-funded international project US-Russian Working Forum on Elementary Mathematics: Is the Elkonin-Davydov Curriculum a Model for the US? and who also brings the perspective of a mathematician, with the theoretical, methodological, and empirical expertise of co-PI Dougherty who has been one of the leading figures in working with, adapting, and studying the implementations of the E-D curriculum in the US, as well as a group of five leading Russian experts who developed, implemented, and studied the original E-D curriculum. The project resources include the E-D curriculum materials and articles only available in Russian.

The PreKEA (PreK Early Algebra through Quantitative Reasoning) project has the potential to make contributions beyond the preK early algebra curriculum that it will develop and implement. The PreKEA project can benefit disadvantaged students by using an innovative approach to EA instruction that has the potential to broaden access and at an early stage change the situation when disproportionately many disadvantaged students are not prepared adequately for learning quantitative reasoning and algebra. With research in preK narrowly focused on particular topics, the results of this project have the potential to inform a broader field including mathematics education and early childhood education with evidence that young children can access and interact with more complex mathematics, extending beyond counting.

Developers and researchers at the Illinois Institute of Technology and Iowa State University are initiating an innovative approach to pre-K students' development of quantitative reasoning through measurement. This quantitative approach builds on measurement concepts and algebraic design of the pre-numeric stage of instruction found in the Elkonin-Davydov (E-D) elementary mathematics curriculum from Russia. The project team is adapting and refocusing the conceptual framework and learning tasks of the E-D pre-numeric stage for use with four-year-olds. The adaptation is being done in collaboration with experts in Russia who were involved in the original E-D development. A primary goal of the project is to obtain a proof-of-concept and lay down a conceptual and empirical foundation for a subsequent research and development.

The research progresses using teaching experiments involving six students. Each student is engaged in 15 minute one-on-one sessions twice each week. Sessions are videotaped and transcribed for further analysis. The analysis of the data is conducted by the project team in collaboration with Russian consultants.

The research findings and methodology will provide grounds for supporting more complex and sophisticated mathematical ideas that will inform curriculum development for pre-K students and teachers. Results will be published and reported widely.

CAREER: Examining the Role of Context in the Mathematical Learning of Young Children

This project involves a longitudinal, ethnographic study of children's mathematical performances from preschool to first grade in both formal classroom settings and informal settings at school and home. The study seeks to identify opportunities for mathematical learning, to map varied performances of mathematical competence, to chart changes in mathematical performance over time, and to design and assess the impact of case studies for teacher education.

Award Number: 
1461468
Funding Period: 
Mon, 06/15/2009 to Tue, 05/31/2011
Full Description: 

This project involves a longitudinal, ethnographic study of children's mathematical performances from preschool to first grade in both formal classroom settings and informal settings at school and home. The proposed site for the study is a small, predominately African-American pk-12 school. The study seeks to identify opportunities for mathematical learning by young children across multiple contexts, to map varied performances of mathematical competence by young children, to chart changes in young children's mathematical performance over time, and to design and assess the impact of case studies for teacher education that explore young children's mathematical competencies. Research questions focus on mathematical opportunities for learning in various contexts, children's development of knowledge, skills, and dispositions over time, the characteristics of competent mathematical performances, and the role of case studies in helping beginning teachers to understand young minority children's mathematical thinking. Data collected will include video tapes of classroom activities, written fieldnotes of formal and informal settings, student work, parent focus group transcripts, and children's interview performances. Analysis will involve both thematic coding and construction of case studies. The overarching goal of this project is to transform the ways that researchers think about and study the mathematical learning of young minority children as well as the quality of schooling these children experience.

The Inquiry Project: Seeing Weight, Grasping Density (Doubler, Carraher, Asbell-Clarke)

Presenter(s): 
Susan Doubler
David Carraher
Jodi Asbell-Clarke
Year: 
2009
Discipline / Topic: 
Presentation Type: 

⁃What does it look like to begin reasoning early about density before definitions and formulas?

⁃What sorts of classroom activities and teaching approaches might support this?

SGER: Assessing the Educational, Career and Social Impacts of the XO Laptop Program in Birmingham, AL City Schools (Cotten)

Presenter(s): 
Shelia Cotten
Year: 
2009
Presentation Type: 

The goal of this study is to assess the educational, career, and social impacts of disseminating an innovative technology, the XO laptop computer, to minority 4th and 5th grade students in Birmingham City Schools (BCS) in Alabama. This is the largest XO dissemination in the U.S. and the first XO dissemination project to distribute XO laptops to all 1st – 5th grade students in a U.S. school district.

Interactive Ink Inscriptions in K-12 (INK-12) (Collaborative Research: Rubin)

This exploratory project seeks to understand the role that a network of tablet computers may play in elementary and middle school math and science classrooms. The project uses classroom observations, student interviews, teacher interviews, and student artifacts to identify the advantages and disadvantages of these resources, to understand what challenges and benefits they offer to teachers, and to offer recommendations for future hardware, software, and curriculum development.

Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
0822055
Funding Period: 
Mon, 09/01/2008 to Tue, 08/31/2010
Project Evaluator: 
David Reider
Full Description: 

Examining Coaching in Elementary (K-8) Mathematics Classrooms

This project conducts research on knowledge that contributes to successful coaching in two domains: coaching knowledge and mathematics content knowledge. The influence of these knowledge domains on both coaches and teachers is being examined in two ways: (1) by investigating correlations between assessments of coach and teacher knowledge and practice in each domain and (2) by investigating causal effects of targeted professional development for coaches.

Project Email: 
Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
0918326
Funding Period: 
Wed, 07/15/2009 to Sun, 07/31/2011

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