Standards

Development of Language-Focused Three-Dimensional Science Instructional Materials to Support English Language Learners in Fifth Grade (Collaborative Research: Lee)

The main purpose of this project is to develop instructional materials for a year-long, fifth grade curriculum for all students, including ELLs. The planned curriculum will promote language-focused and three-dimensional science learning (through blending of science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas), aligned with the Framework for K-12 Science Education, the Next Generation Science Standards, and the Conceptual Framework for Language use in the Science Classroom.

Lead Organization(s): 
Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1503330
Funding Period: 
Tue, 09/01/2015 to Sat, 08/31/2019
Full Description: 

This project was submitted to the Discovery Research K-12 (DRK-12) program that seeks to significantly enhance the learning and teaching of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by preK-12 students and teachers, through research and development of innovative resources, models, and tools. Projects in the DRK-12 program build on fundamental research in STEM education and prior research and development efforts that provide theoretical and empirical justification for proposed projects. The project is responsive to the societal challenges emerging from the nation's diverse and rapidly changing student demographics, including the rise of English language learners (ELLs), the fastest growing student population (see, for example, "U.S. school enrollment hits majority-minority milestone", Education Week, February 1, 2015). ELLs have grown exponentially: 1 in 5 students (21%) in the nation spoke a language other than English at home in 2011. The project's main purpose is to develop instructional materials for a year-long, fifth grade curriculum for all students, including ELLs. The planned curriculum will promote language-focused and three-dimensional science learning (through blending of science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas), aligned with the Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012), the Next Generation Science Standards (Achieve, 2013), and the Conceptual Framework for Language use in the Science Classroom (Lee, Quinn & Valdés, 2013). The grade-level science content will target topics, such as structure and properties of matter, matter and energy in organisms and ecosystems, and Earth's and space systems, with engineering design embedded in each topic. The language approach will emphasize analytical science tasks aimed at making sense of and constructing scientific knowledge; and receptive (listening and reading) and productive (speaking and writing) language functions. Products and research results from this project will help to reduce the science achievement gaps between ELLs and non-ELLs, and enable all students to attain higher levels of proficiency in subsequent grade levels.

After the curriculum has been developed and field-tested during Years 1-3, a pilot study will be conducted in Year 4 to investigate promise of effectiveness. Using a randomized controlled trial design, the pilot study will address three research questions: (1) What is the impact of the intervention on science learning and language development for all students, including ELLs and former ELLs?; (2) What is the impact of the intervention on teachers' instructional practices?; and (3) To what extent are teachers able to implement the instructional materials with fidelity? To address research question 1, a sequence of multi-level models (MLMs) in which the posttest score for each student measure (the state/district science test score, and the science score and the language score on the researcher-developed assessment) will be regressed on a dummy variable representing condition (treatment or control) and pretest covariates. To examine whether the intervention is beneficial for students of varying levels of English proficiency, subgroup analyses will be conducted comparing ELLs in the treatment group against ELLs in the control group; former ELLs in the treatment group against former ELLs in the control group; and non-ELLs in the treatment group against non-ELLs in the control group, using the same MLMs. Exploratory analyses will be employed to examine the extent to which the level of English proficiency moderates the impact of the intervention on ELLs. To address research question 2, a 2-level model (teachers as level-1, and schools as level-2) in which the post-questionnaire scale score will be regressed on a dummy variable representing condition (treatment or control) will be conducted. To address research question 3, plans are to analyze ratings on coverage, adherence, and quality of instruction from classroom observations, along with ratings on program differentiation and participant responsiveness from the implementation and feedback form.

Development of Language-Focused Three-Dimensional Science Instructional Materials to Support English Language Learners in Fifth Grade (Collaborative Research: Valdes)

The main purpose of this project is to develop instructional materials for a year-long, fifth grade curriculum for all students, including ELLs. The planned curriculum will promote language-focused and three-dimensional science learning (through blending of science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas), aligned with the Framework for K-12 Science Education, the Next Generation Science Standards, and the Conceptual Framework for Language use in the Science Classroom.

Lead Organization(s): 
Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1502507
Funding Period: 
Tue, 09/01/2015 to Sat, 08/31/2019
Full Description: 

This project is responsive to the societal challenges emerging from the nation's diverse and rapidly changing student demographics, including the rise of English language learners (ELLs), the fastest growing student population (see, for example, "U.S. school enrollment hits majority-minority milestone", Education Week, February 1, 2015). ELLs have grown exponentially: 1 in 5 students (21%) in the nation spoke a language other than English at home in 2011. The project's main purpose is to develop instructional materials for a year-long, fifth grade curriculum for all students, including ELLs. The planned curriculum will promote language-focused and three-dimensional science learning (through blending of science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas), aligned with the Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012), the Next Generation Science Standards (Achieve, 2013), and the Conceptual Framework for Language use in the Science Classroom (Lee, Quinn & Valdés, 2013). The grade-level science content will target topics, such as structure and properties of matter, matter and energy in organisms and ecosystems, and Earth's and space systems, with engineering design embedded in each topic. The language approach will emphasize analytical science tasks aimed at making sense of and constructing scientific knowledge; and receptive (listening and reading) and productive (speaking and writing) language functions. Products and research results from this project will help to reduce the science achievement gaps between ELLs and non-ELLs, and enable all students to attain higher levels of proficiency in subsequent grade levels.

After the curriculum has been developed and field-tested during Years 1-3, a pilot study will be conducted in Year 4 to investigate promise of effectiveness. Using a randomized controlled trial design, the pilot study will address three research questions: (1) What is the impact of the intervention on science learning and language development for all students, including ELLs and former ELLs?; (2) What is the impact of the intervention on teachers' instructional practices?; and (3) To what extent are teachers able to implement the instructional materials with fidelity? To address research question 1, a sequence of multi-level models (MLMs) in which the posttest score for each student measure (the state/district science test score, and the science score and the language score on the researcher-developed assessment) will be regressed on a dummy variable representing condition (treatment or control) and pretest covariates. To examine whether the intervention is beneficial for students of varying levels of English proficiency, subgroup analyses will be conducted comparing ELLs in the treatment group against ELLs in the control group; former ELLs in the treatment group against former ELLs in the control group; and non-ELLs in the treatment group against non-ELLs in the control group, using the same MLMs. Exploratory analyses will be employed to examine the extent to which the level of English proficiency moderates the impact of the intervention on ELLs. To address research question 2, a 2-level model (teachers as level-1, and schools as level-2) in which the post-questionnaire scale score will be regressed on a dummy variable representing condition (treatment or control) will be conducted. To address research question 3, plans are to analyze ratings on coverage, adherence, and quality of instruction from classroom observations, along with ratings on program differentiation and participant responsiveness from the implementation and feedback form.

CAREER: Algebraic Knowledge for Teaching: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

The goal of this CAREER program of research is to identify, from a cross-cultural perspective, essential Algebraic Knowledge for Teaching (AKT) that will enable elementary teachers to better develop students' algebraic thinking. This study explores AKT based on integrated insights of the U.S. and Chinese expert teachers' classroom performance.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1350068
Funding Period: 
Fri, 08/15/2014 to Fri, 07/31/2020
Full Description: 

What content knowledge is needed for the teaching of mathematics? What practices are more effective for realizing student success? These questions have received considerable attention in the mathematics education community. The goal of this CAREER program of research is to identify, from a cross-cultural perspective, essential Algebraic Knowledge for Teaching (AKT) that will enable elementary teachers to better develop students' algebraic thinking. Focusing on two fundamental mathematical ideas recently emphasized by the Common Core State Standards - inverse relations and properties of operations - this study explores AKT based on integrated insights of the U.S. and Chinese expert teachers' classroom performance. It will be focused on three objectives: (1) identify AKT that facilitates algebraic thinking and develop preliminary findings into teaching materials; (2) refine research-based teaching materials based on the evaluative data; and (3) integrate research with education through course development at Temple University and teacher outreach in Philadelphia.

The model underlying this research program is that improved pedagogy will improve student learning, both directly and indirectly. A design-based research method will be used to accomplish objectives #1 and #2. Cross-cultural videotaped lessons will be first analyzed to identify AKT, focusing on teachers' use of worked examples, representations, and deep questions. This initial set of findings will then be developed into teaching materials. The U.S. and Chinese expert teachers will re-teach the lessons as part of the refinement process. Data sources will include: baseline and updated survey data (control, context, and process variables), observation, documents, videos, and interviews. The statistical techniques will include descriptive and inferential statistics and HLM will to address the hierarchical nature of the data.

This project involves students and teachers at various levels (elementary, undergraduate, and graduate) at Temple University and the School District of Philadelphia (SDP) in the U.S. and Nanjing Normal University and Nantong School District in China. A total of 600 current and future elementary teachers and many of their students will benefit directly or indirectly from this project. Project findings will be disseminated through various venues. Activities of the project will promote school district-university collaboration, a novice-expert teacher network, and cross-disciplinary and international collaboration. It is anticipated that the videos of expert teaching will also be useful future research by cognitive researchers studying ways to improve mathematics learning.

Publications
G indicates graduate student author; U indicates undergraduate student author

Book

Journal Articles in English

  1. Ding, M., Li, X., G Hassler, R., & G Barnett, E. (2021). Understanding of the properties of operations: A cross-cultural analysis. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 52(1), 39-64. doi: 10.1080/0020739X.2019.1657595. PDF
  2. Ding, M., G Hassler, R., & Li., X. (2020). Cognitive instructional principles in elementary mathematics classrooms: A case of teaching inverse relations. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology. doi: 10.1080/0020739X.2020.1749319
  3. Ding, M., G Chen, W., & G Hassler, R. (2019). Linear quantity models in the US and Chinese elementary mathematics classrooms. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 21, 105-130 doi: 10.1080/10986065.2019.1570834 . PDF
  4. Barnett, E., & Ding, M. (2019). Teaching of the associative property: A natural classroom investigation. Investigations of Mathematics Learning, 11, 148-166. doi: 10.1080/19477503.2018.1425592  PDF
  5. Ding, M., & G Heffernan, K. (2018). Transferring specialized content knowledge to elementary classrooms: Preservice teachers’ learning to teach the associative property. International Journal of Mathematics Educational in Science and Technology, 49, 899-921.doi: 10.1080/0020739X.2018.1426793 PDF
  6. Ding, M. (2018). Modeling with tape diagrams. Teaching Children Mathematics25, 158-165. doi: 10.5951/teacchilmath.25.3.0158  PDF
  7. G Chen, W., & Ding, M.* (2018). Transitioning from mathematics textbook to classroom instruction: The case of a Chinese expert teacher. Frontiers of Education in China, 13, 601-632. doi: 10.1007/s11516-018-0031-z (*Both authors contributed equally). PDF
  8. Ding, M., & G Auxter, A. (2017). Children’s strategies to solving additive inverse problems: A preliminary analysis. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 29, 73-92. doi:10.1007/s13394-017-0188-4  PDF
  9. Ding, M. (2016).  Developing preservice elementary teachers’ specialized content knowledge for teaching fundamental mathematical ideas: The case of associative property. International Journal of STEM Education, 3(9), 1-19doi: 10.1186/s40594-016-0041-4  PDF
  10. Ding, M. (2016). Opportunities to learn: Inverse operations in U.S. and Chinese elementary mathematics textbooks. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 18, 45-68. doi: 10.1080/10986065.2016.1107819  PDF

Journal Articles in Chinese
Note: The Chinese journals Educational Research and Evaluation (Elementary Education and Instruction教育研究与评论 (小学教育教学) and Curriculum and Instructional Methods (课程教材教法) are both official, core journals in mathematics education field in China.

  1. Chen, W. (2018). Strategies to deal with mathematical representations – an analysis of expert’s classroom instruction. Curriculum and Instructional Methods. 数学教学的表征处理策略——基于专家教师的课堂教学分析. 课程教材教法. PDF
  2. Ma, F. ( 2018) – Necessary algebraic knowledge for elementary teachers- an ongoing cross-cultural study. Educational Research and Evaluation (Elementary Education and Instruction), 2, 5-7.  小学教师必备的代数学科知识-跨文化研究进行时。教育研究与评论 (小学教育教学), 2, 5-7. PDF
  3. Chen, J. (2018) Infusion and development of children’s early algebraic thinking – a comparative study of the US and Chinese elementary mathematics teaching. Educational Research and Evaluation (Elementary Education and Instruction), 2, 8-13.  儿童早期代数思维的渗透与培养-中美小学数学教学比较研究。教育研究与评论(小学教育教学),28-13.  PDF
  4. Zong, L. (2018). A comparative study on the infusion of inverse relations in the US and Chinese classroom teaching. Educational Research and Evaluation (Elementary Education and Instruction), 2, 14-19.  中美逆运算渗透教学对比研究。教育研究与评论(小学教育教学,2,14-19.  PDF
  5. Wu, X. (2018). Mathematical representations and development of children’s mathematical thinking: A perspective of US-Chinese comparison. Educational Research and Evaluation (Elementary Education and Instruction), 2, 20-24.  数学表征与儿童数学思维发展-基于中美比较视角。教育研究与评论(小学教育教学,2, 20-24.  PDF

Dissertations

  1. Hassler, R. (2016). Mathematical comprehension facilitated by situation models: Learning opportunities for inverse relations in elementary school.Published dissertation, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA. (Chair: Dr. Meixia Ding)  PDF
  2. Chen, W. (2018). Elementary mathematics teachers’ professional growth: A perspectives of TPACK (TPACK 视角下小学数学教师专业发展的研究). Dissertation, Nanjing Normal University. Nanjing, China. PDF

National Presentations
G indicates graduate student author; U indicates undergraduate student author

  • Ding, M., G Spiro, B., & G Mochaourab, R. (2021). Promoting changes in elementary mathematics teaching: A case study. Presented at 2021 AERA annual conference (virtual).
  • Alibali, M. W., Ding, M., Yeo, A., Huang, H. & Meng, R. (2020, April) Linking Representations of Equality in First-Grade Mathematics Lessons in China [Roundtable Session]. AERA Annual Meeting San Francisco, CA http://tinyurl.com/sjs4ebe (Conference Canceled)
  • Ding, M. (2020, April). Worked examples in elementary mathematics classrooms: A cross-cultural analysis[Paper Session]. AERA Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA (Conference Canceled).  Paper presented in AERA Interactive Presentation Gallery on July 31th 2020.
  • Ding, M (symposium organizer, 2019, April). Enhancing elementary mathematics instruction: A U.S.-China collaboration. Papers presented at NCTM research conference (Discussant: Jinfa Cai). (The following three action research papers were written by my NSF project teachers under my guidance).
      • Milewski Moskal, M., & Varano, A. (2019). The teaching of worked examples: Chinese approaches in U.S. classrooms. Paper 
      • Larese, T., Milewski Moskal, M., Ottinger, M., & Varano, A., (2019). Introducing Investigations math games in China: Successes and surprises. Paper
      • Murray, D., Seidman, J., Blackmon, E., Maimon, G., & Domsky, A. (2019). Mathematic instruction across two cultures: A teacher perspective. Paper
    • Ding, M., & Ying Y. (2018, June). CAREER: Algebraic knowledge for teaching: A cross-cultural perspective. Poster presentation at the National Science Foundation (NSF) PI meeting, Washington, DC.  Poster
    • Ding, M., Brynes, J., G Barnett, E., & Hassler, R. (2018, April). When classroom instruction predicts students’ learning of early algebra: A cross-cultural opportunity-propensity analysis. Paper presented at 2018 AERA conference. New York, NY.  Paper
    • Ding, M., Li, X., Manfredonia, M., & Luo, W. (2018, April). Video as a tool to support teacher learning: A Cross-cultural analysis. Paper presented at 2018 NCTM conference. Washington, DC.  PPT
    • GBarnett, E., & Ding, M. (2018, April). Teaching the basic properties of arithmetic: A natural classroom investigation of associativity. Poster presentation at 2018AERA conference, New York, NY.  Poster
    • Hassler, R., & Ding, M. (2018, April). The role of deep questions in promoting elementary students’ mathematical comprehension. Poster presentation at 2018AERA conference, New York, NY.
    • Ding, M., G Chen, W., G Hassler, R., Li, X., & G Barnett, E. (April, 2017). Comparisons in the US and Chinese elementary mathematics classrooms. Poster presentation at AERA 2017 conference (In the session of “Advancing Mathematics Education Through NSF’s DRK-12 Program”). San Antonio, TX. Poster
    • Ding, M., Li, X., G Hassler, R., & G Barnett, E. (April, 2017). Understanding the basic properties of operations in US and Chinese elementary School. Paper presented at AERA 2017 conference. San Antonio, TX.  Paper
    • Ding, M., G Chen, W., & G Hassler, R. (April, 2017). Tape diagrams in the US and Chinese elementary mathematics classrooms. Paper presented at NCTM 2017 conference. San Antonio, TX.  Paper
    • Ding, M., & G Hassler, R. (2016, June). CAREER: Algebraic knowledge for teaching in elementary school: A cross-cultural perspective. Poster presentation at the NSF PI meeting, Washington, DC. Poster
    • Ding, M. (symposium organizer, 2016, April). Early algebraic in elementary school: A cross-cultural perspective. Proposals presented at 2016 AERA conference, Washington, DC.
        • Ding, M. (2016, April). A comparative analysis of inverse operations in U.S. and Chinese elementary mathematics textbooks. Paper 
        • G Hassler, R. (2016, April). Elementary Textbooks to Classroom Teaching: A Situation Model Perspective. Paper
        • G Chen, W., & Ding, M. (2016, April). Transitioning textbooks into classroom teaching: An action research on Chinese elementary mathematics lessons. Paper
        • Li, X., G Hassler, R., & Ding, M. (2016, April). Elementary students’ understanding of inverse relations in the U.S. and China.  Paper
        • Stull, J., Ding, M., G Hassler, R., Li, X., & U George, C. (2016, April). The impact of algebraic knowledge for teaching on student learning: A Preliminary analysis. Paper
      • Ding, M., G Hassler, R., Li., X., & G Chen, W. (2016, April). Algebraic knowledge for teaching: An analysis of US experts' lessons on inverse relations. Paper presented at 2016 NCTM conference, San Francisco, CA. Paper
      • G Hassler. R., & Ding, M. (2016, April). Situation model perspective on mathematics classroom teaching: A case study on inverse relations. Paper presented at 2016 NCTM conference, San Francisco, CA.  Paper
      • Ding, M., & G Copeland, K. (2015, April). Transforming specialized content knowledge: Preservice elementary teachers’ learning to teach the associative property of multiplication. Paper presented at AERA 2015 conference, Chicago, IL. Paper PPT
      • Ding, M., & G Auxter, A. (2015, April). Children’s strategies to solving additive inverse problems: A preliminary analysis. Paper presented at AERA 2015 conference, Chicago, IL.  Paper

      Teaching Environmental Sustainability - Model My Watershed (Collaborative Research: Staudt)

      This project will develop curricula for environmental/geoscience disciplines for high-school classrooms. The Model My Watershed (MMW) v2 app will bring new environmental datasets and geospatial capabilities into the classroom, to provide a cloud-based learning and analysis platform accessible from a web browser on any computer or mobile device, thus overcoming the cost and technical obstacles to integrating Geographic Information System technology in secondary education.

      Lead Organization(s): 
      Award Number: 
      1417722
      Funding Period: 
      Mon, 09/01/2014 to Fri, 08/31/2018
      Full Description: 

      This project will develop curricula for environmental/geoscience disciplines for high-school classrooms. It will teach a systems approach to problem solving through hands-on activities based on local data and issues. This will provide an opportunity for students to act in their communities while engaging in solving problems they find interesting, and require synthesis of prior learning. The Model My Watershed (MMW) v2 app will bring new environmental datasets and geospatial capabilities into the classroom, to provide a cloud-based learning and analysis platform accessible from a web browser on any computer or mobile device, thus overcoming the cost and technical obstacles to integrating Geographic Information System technology in secondary education. It will also integrate new low-cost environmental sensors that allow students to collect and upload their own data and compare them to data visualized on the new MMW v2. This project will transform the ability of teachers throughout the nation to introduce hands-on geospatial analysis activities in the classroom, to explore a wide range of geographic, social, political and environmental concepts and problems beyond the project's specific curricular focus.

      The Next Generation Science Standards state that authentic research experiences are necessary to enhance STEM learning. A combination of computational modeling and data collection and analysis will be integrated into this project to address this need. Placing STEM content within a place- and problem-based framework enhances STEM learning. Students, working in groups, will not only design solutions, they will be required to defend them within the application portal through the creation of multimedia products such as videos, articles and web 2.0 presentations. The research plan tests the overall hypothesis that students are much more likely to develop an interest in careers that require systems thinking and/or spatial thinking, such as environmental sciences, if they are provided with problem-based, place-based, hands-on learning experiences using real data, authentic geospatial analysis tools and models, and opportunities to collect their own supporting data. The MMW v2 web app will include a data visualization tool that streams data related to the modeling application. This database will be modified to integrate student data so teachers and students can easily compare their data to data collected by other students and the government and research data. All data will be easily downloadable so that students can increase the use of real data to support the educational exercises. As a complement to the model-based activities, the project partners will design, manufacture, and distribute a low-cost environmental monitoring device, called the Watershed Tracker. This device will allow students to collect real-world data to enhance their understanding of watershed dynamics. Featuring temperature, light, humidity, and soil moisture sensors, the Watershed Tracker will be designed to connect to tablets and smartphones through the audio jack common to all of these devices.

      Learning about Ecosystems Science and Complex Causality through Experimentation in a Virtual World

      This project will develop a modified virtual world and accompanying curriculum for middle school students to help them learn to more deeply understand ecosystems patterns and the strengths and limitations of experimentation in ecosystems science. The project will build upon a computer world called EcoMUVE, a Multi-User Virtual Environment or MUVE, and will develop ways for students to conduct experiments within the virtual world and to see the results of those experiments.

      Project Email: 
      Lead Organization(s): 
      Award Number: 
      1416781
      Funding Period: 
      Mon, 09/01/2014 to Thu, 08/31/2017
      Full Description: 

      EcoXPT from videohall.com on Vimeo.

      Comprehending how ecosystems function is important knowledge for citizens in making decisions and for students who aspire to become scientists. This understanding requires deep thinking about complex causality, unintended side-effects, and the strengths and limitations of experimental science. These are difficult concepts to learn due to the many interacting components and non-linear interrelationships involved. Ecosystems dynamics is particularly difficult to teach in classrooms because ecosystems involve complexities such as phenomena distributed widely across space that change over long time frames. Learning when and how experimental science can provide useful information in understanding ecosystems dynamics requires moving beyond the limited affordances of classrooms. The project will: 1) advance understanding of experimentation in ecosystems as it can be applied to education; 2) show how student learning is affected by having opportunities to experiment in the virtual world that simulate what scientists do in the real world and with models; and 3) produce results comparing this form of teaching to earlier instructional approaches. This project will result in a learning environment that will support learning about the complexities of the earth's ecosystem.

      The project will build upon a computer world called EcoMUVE, a Multi-User Virtual Environment or MUVE, developed as part of an earlier NSF-funded project. A MUVE is a simulated world in which students can virtually walk around, make observations, talk to others, and collect data. EcoMUVE simulates a pond and a forest ecosystem. It offers an immersive context that makes it possible to teach about ecosystems in the classroom, allowing exploration of the complexities of large scale problems, extended time frames and and multiple causality. To more fully understand how ecosystems work, students need the opportunity to experiment and to observe what happens. This project will advance this earlier work by developing ways for students to conduct experiments within the virtual world and to see the results of those experiments. The project will work with ecosystem scientists to study the types of experiments that they conduct, informing knowledge in education about how ecosystem scientists think, and will build opportunities for students that mirror what scientists do. The project will develop a modified virtual world and accompanying curriculum for middle school students to help them learn to more deeply understand ecosystems patterns and the strengths and limitations of experimentation in ecosystems science. The resulting program will be tested against existing practice, the EcoMUVE program alone, and other programs that teach aspects of ecosystems dynamics to help teachers know how to best use these curricula in the classroom.

      Teaching Environmental Sustainability - Model My Watershed (Collaborative Research: Kerlin)

      This project will develop curricula for environmental/geoscience disciplines for high-school classrooms. The Model My Watershed (MMW) v2 app will bring new environmental datasets and geospatial capabilities into the classroom, to provide a cloud-based learning and analysis platform accessible from a web browser on any computer or mobile device, thus overcoming the cost and technical obstacles to integrating Geographic Information System technology in secondary education.

      Lead Organization(s): 
      Award Number: 
      1418133
      Funding Period: 
      Mon, 09/01/2014 to Fri, 08/31/2018
      Project Evaluator: 
      Education Design
      Full Description: 

      This project will develop curricula for environmental/geoscience disciplines for high-school classrooms. It will teach a systems approach to problem solving through hands-on activities based on local data and issues. This will provide an opportunity for students to act in their communities while engaging in solving problems they find interesting, and require synthesis of prior learning. The Model My Watershed (MMW) v2 app will bring new environmental datasets and geospatial capabilities into the classroom, to provide a cloud-based learning and analysis platform accessible from a web browser on any computer or mobile device, thus overcoming the cost and technical obstacles to integrating Geographic Information System technology in secondary education. It will also integrate new low-cost environmental sensors that allow students to collect and upload their own data and compare them to data visualized on the new MMW v2. This project will transform the ability of teachers throughout the nation to introduce hands-on geospatial analysis activities in the classroom, to explore a wide range of geographic, social, political and environmental concepts and problems beyond the project's specific curricular focus.

      The Next Generation Science Standards state that authentic research experiences are necessary to enhance STEM learning. A combination of computational modeling and data collection and analysis will be integrated into this project to address this need. Placing STEM content within a place- and problem-based framework enhances STEM learning. Students, working in groups, will not only design solutions, they will be required to defend them within the application portal through the creation of multimedia products such as videos, articles and web 2.0 presentations. The research plan tests the overall hypothesis that students are much more likely to develop an interest in careers that require systems thinking and/or spatial thinking, such as environmental sciences, if they are provided with problem-based, place-based, hands-on learning experiences using real data, authentic geospatial analysis tools and models, and opportunities to collect their own supporting data. The MMW v2 web app will include a data visualization tool that streams data related to the modeling application. This database will be modified to integrate student data so teachers and students can easily compare their data to data collected by other students and the government and research data. All data will be easily downloadable so that students can increase the use of real data to support the educational exercises. As a complement to the model-based activities, the project partners will design, manufacture, and distribute a low-cost environmental monitoring device, called the Watershed Tracker. This device will allow students to collect real-world data to enhance their understanding of watershed dynamics. Featuring temperature, light, humidity, and soil moisture sensors, the Watershed Tracker will be designed to connect to tablets and smartphones through the audio jack common to all of these devices.

      Supporting Secondary Students in Building External Models (Collaborative Research: Damelin)

      This project will (1) develop and test a modeling tool and accompanying instructional materials, (2) explore how to support students in building and using models to explain and predict phenomena across a range of disciplines, and (3) document the sophistication of understanding of disciplinary core ideas that students develop when building and using models in grades 6-12. 

      Lead Organization(s): 
      Award Number: 
      1417809
      Funding Period: 
      Fri, 08/01/2014 to Tue, 07/31/2018
      Full Description: 

      The Concord Consortium and Michigan State University will collaborate to: (1) develop and test a modeling tool and accompanying instructional materials, (2) explore how to support students in building and using models to explain and predict phenomena across a range of disciplines, and (3) document the sophistication of understanding of disciplinary core ideas that students develop when building and using models in grades 6-12. By iteratively designing, developing and testing a modeling tool and instructional materials that facilitate the building of dynamic models, the project will result in exemplary middle and high school materials that use a model-based approach as well as an understanding of the potential of this approach in supporting student development of explanatory frameworks and modeling capabilities. A key goal of the project is to increase students' learning of science through modeling and to study student engagement with modeling as a scientific practice. 

      The project provides the nation with middle and high school resources that support students in developing and using models to explain and predict phenomena, a central scientific and engineering practice. Because the research and development work will be carried out in schools in which students typically do not succeed in science, the products will also help produce a population of citizens capable of continuing further STEM learning and who can participate knowledgeably in public decision making. The goals of the project are to (1) develop and test a modeling tool and accompanying instructional materials, (2) explore how to support students in building, using, and revising models to explain and predict phenomena across a range of disciplines, and (3) document the sophistication of understanding of disciplinary core ideas that students develop when building and using models in grades 6-12. Using a design-based research methodology, the research and development efforts will involve multiple cycles of designing, developing, testing, and refining the systems modeling tool and the instructional materials to help students meet important learning goals related to constructing dynamic models that align with the Next Generation Science Standards. The learning research will study the effect of working with external models on student construction of robust explanatory conceptual understanding. Additionally, it will develop a set of professional development resources and teacher scaffolds to help the expanding community of teachers not directly involved in the project take advantage of the materials and strategies for maximizing the impact of the curricular materials.

      Reclaiming Access to Inquiry-based Science Education (RAISE) for Incarcerated Students

      This project will develop a Universal Design for Learning, project-based inquiry science program that includes virtual learning environments, virtual laboratories, and digital scaffolds and supports that promote scientific learning for incarcerated youth.

      Award Number: 
      1418152
      Funding Period: 
      Mon, 09/01/2014 to Fri, 08/31/2018
      Full Description: 

      This project is unique in targeting arguably the most vulnerable learners in the American education system: youth confined in juvenile corrections facilities. Three primary problems confronting science education in these settings are: (1) inadequate curriculum and resources; (2) inadequately prepared and supported teachers; and (3) a heterogeneous group of learners, many of whom have disabilities, are disengaged, and/or lack reading and mathematics skills. Failure to address these challenges and the broader educational needs of incarcerated juveniles has broad implications for society, so this project is timely and has high potential for broad impacts.

      To address these problems project personnel will employ an iterative development process to develop a curriculum designed to increase access to and mastery of science content, concepts, and inquiry skills critical for careers in the 21st Century STEM workforce. They will then prepare teachers to implement the program in pilot testing in juvenile corrections facilities in Massachusetts. Specifically, the investigators will: (1) align and adapt an existing biology curriculum using Common Core State Standards and Universal Design for Learning principles; (2) develop all materials, digital supports and scaffolds, virtual learning environments and labs, assessments, and teacher professional development materials for one curriculum unit; (3) conduct usability evaluation of all materials and use the results to refine and finalize two curriculum units; (4) prepare teachers to implement the biology program in juvenile corrections education settings; (5) conduct a quasi-experimental study to examine the impacts of the biology program on the content knowledge and inquiry skills of students, their interests, and their levels of engagement; and, (6) disseminate the findings to various constituency groups. The final product will be a Universal Design for Learning, project-based inquiry science program that includes virtual learning environments, virtual laboratories, and digital scaffolds and supports that promote scientific learning for incarcerated youth.

      Next Gen Alliance for Science Education Toolkit

      This project will research the development and application of new Next Generation curriculum exemplars for middle school science that align with the expectations of NGSS by (1) constructing diagnostic tools to assess the alignment of curricula; (2) using the tool for existing curricula in order to field test it; and (3) systematically investigating the effectiveness of the tool.

      Partner Organization(s): 
      Award Number: 
      1418440
      Funding Period: 
      Mon, 09/01/2014 to Thu, 08/31/2017
      Full Description: 

      This project will research the development and application of new Next Generation curriculum exemplars for middle school science and K-12 teacher preparation foundational level general science (collectively referred to as Next Gen curriculum materials). The project will address the need to develop middle school science curriculum that aligns with the expectations of NGSS by (1) constructing diagnostic tools to assess the alignment of curricula; (2) using the tool for existing curricula in order to field test it; and (3) systematically investigating the effectiveness of the tool. The project will use these tools to revise and test a series of middle school lessons, implement them in the classroom, and study their results. Research on the efficacy of these diagnostic tools will address specific content and evidence of learning in two domains: student middle school science learning and teacher content learning.

      The project will develop curriculum diagnostic tools for middle school science. The process of development will include field testing with teachers and students in 60 classrooms (20 life, 20 physical, and 20 earth science classrooms) in high needs areas. It will employ rigorous standards in developing and applying research-based procedures to produce NGSS curriculum exemplars. The mixed methodology approach will provide in-depth information regarding the alignment of new curriculum materials to the NGSS. The rigorously analyzed and field-tested Next Generation science curriculum exemplars products produced will be broadly disseminated through state and national conferences and networks of programs with which the California State University, East Bay (CSU East Bay) and core partners are in collaboration.

      Preparing Urban Middle Grades Mathematics Teachers to Teach Argumentation Throughout the School Year

      The objective of this project is to develop a toolkit of resources and practices that will help inservice middle grades mathematics teachers support mathematical argumentation throughout the school year. A coherent, portable, two-year-long professional development program on mathematical argumentation has the potential to increase access to mathematical argumentation for students nationwide and, in particular, to address the needs of teachers and students in urban areas.

      Lead Organization(s): 
      Award Number: 
      1417895
      Funding Period: 
      Sun, 06/15/2014 to Thu, 05/31/2018
      Full Description: 

      The project is an important study that builds on prior research to bring a comprehensive professional development program to another urban school district, The District of Columbia Public Schools. The objective of this full research and development project is to develop a toolkit  that provides resources and practices for inservice middle grades mathematics teachers to support mathematical argumentation throughout the school year. Mathematical argumentation, the construction and critique of mathematical conjectures and justifications, is a fundamental disciplinary practice in mathematics that students often never master. Building on a proof of concept of the project's approach ifrom two prior NSF-funded studies, this project expands the model to help teachers support mathematical argumentation all year. A coherent, portable, two-year-long professional development program on mathematical argumentation has the potential to increase access to mathematical argumentation for students nationwide and, in particular, to address the needs of teachers and students in urban areas. Demonstrating this program in the nation's capital will likely attract broad interest and produces important knowledge about how to implement mathematical practices in urban settings. Increasing mathematical argumentation in schools has the potential for dramatic contributions to students' achievement and participation in 21st century workplaces.

      Mathematical argumentation is rich discussion in which students take on mathematical authority and co-construct conjectures and justifications. For many teachers, supporting such discourse is challenging; many are most comfortable with Initiate-Respond-Evaluate types of practices and/or have insufficient content understanding. The professional development trains teachers to be disciplined improvisers -- professionals with a toolkit of tools, knowledge, and practices to be deployed creatively and responsively as mathematical argumentation unfolds. This discipline includes establishing classroom norms and planning lessons for argumentation. The model's theory of action has four design principles: provide the toolkit, use simulations of the classroom to practice improvising, support learning of key content, and provide job-embedded, technology-enabled supports for using new practices all year. Three yearlong studies will address design, feasibility, and promise. In Study 1 the team co-designs tools with District of Columbia Public Schools staff. Study 2 is a feasibility study to examine program implementation, identify barriers and facilitators, and inform improvements. Study 3 is a quasi-experimental pilot to test the promise for achieving intended outcomes: expanding teachers' content knowledge and support of mathematical argumentation, and increasing students' mathematical argumentation in the classroom and spoken argumentation proficiency. The studies will result in a yearlong professional development program with documentation of the theory of action, design decisions, pilot data, and instrument technical qualities.

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