Mathematics

Investigating Impact of Different Types of Professional Development on What Aspects Mathematics Teachers Take Up and Use in Their Classroom

This project will study the design and development of PD that supports teacher development and student learning, and provide accumulation of evidence to inform teacher educators, administrators, teachers, and policymakers of factors associated with successful PD experiences and variation across teachers and types of PDs.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1813439
Funding Period: 
Sun, 07/01/2018 to Wed, 06/30/2021
Full Description: 

Professional development is a critical way in which teachers who are currently in classrooms learn about changes in mathematics teaching and learning and improve their practice. Little is known about what types of professional development (PD) support teachers' improved practice and student learning. However, federal, state, and local governments spend resources on helping teachers improve their teaching practice and students' learning. PD programs vary in their intent and can fall on a continuum from highly adaptive, with great latitude in the implementation, to highly specified, with little ability to adapt the program during implementation. The project will study the design and development of PD that supports teacher development and student learning, and provide accumulation of evidence to inform teacher educators, administrators, teachers, and policymakers of factors associated with successful PD experiences and variation across teachers and types of PDs. The impact study will expand on the evidence of promise from four 2015 National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded projects - two adaptive, two specified - to provide evidence of the impact of the projects on teachers' instructional practice over time. Although the four projects are different in terms of structure and design elements, they all share the goal to support challenging mathematics content, practice standards, and differentiation techniques to support culturally and linguistically diverse, underrepresented populations. Understanding the nature of the professional development including structure and design elements, and unpacking what teachers take up and use in their instructional practice potentially has widespread use to support student learning in diverse contexts, especially those serving disadvantaged and underrepresented student populations.

This study will examine teachers' uptake of mathematics content, pedagogy and materials from different types of professional development in order to understand and unpack the factors that are associated with what teachers take up and use two-three years beyond their original PD experience: Two specified 1) An Efficacy Study of the Learning and Teaching Geometry PD Materials: Examining Impact and Context-Based Adaptations (Jennifer Jacobs, Karen Koellner & Nanette Seago), 2) Visual Access to Mathematics: Professional Development for Teachers of English Learners (Mark Driscoll, Johanna Nikula, & Pamela Buffington), two adaptive: 3) Refining a Model with Tools to Develop Math PD Leaders: An Implementation Study (Hilda Borko & Janet Carlson), 4), TRUmath and Lesson Study: Supporting Fundamental and Sustainable Improvement in High School Mathematics Teaching (Suzanne Donovan, Phil Tucher, & Catherine Lewis). The project will utilize a multi-case method which centers on a common focus of what content, pedagogy and materials teachers take up from PD experiences. Using a specified sampling procedure, the project will select 8 teachers from each of the four PD projects to serve as case study teachers. Subsequently, the project will conduct a cross case analysis focusing on variation among and between teachers and different types of PD. The research questions that guide the project's impact study are: RQ1: What is the nature of what teachers take up and use after participating in professional development workshops? RQ2: What factors influence what teachers take up and use and in what ways? RQ3: How does a professional development's position on the specified-adaptive continuum affect what teachers take up and use?

CAREER: Mechanisms Underlying the Relation Between Mathematical Language and Mathematical Knowledge

The purpose of this project is to examine the process by which math language instruction improves learning of mathematics skills in order to design and translate the most effective interventions into practical classroom instruction.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1749294
Funding Period: 
Wed, 08/01/2018 to Mon, 07/31/2023
Full Description: 

Successful development of numeracy and geometry skills during preschool provides a strong foundation for later academic and career success. Recent evidence shows that learning math language (e.g., concepts such as more, few, less, near, before) during preschool supports this development. The purpose of this Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) project is to examine the process by which math language instruction improves learning of mathematics skills in order to design and translate the most effective interventions into practical classroom instruction. The first objective of this project is to examine if quantitative and spatial math language effect the development of different aspects of mathematics performance (e.g., numeracy, geometry). The second objective is to examine how quantitative math language versus numeracy instruction, either alone or in combination, effect numeracy development. The findings from this study will not only be used to improve theoretical understanding of how math language and mathematics skills develop, but the instructional materials developed for this study will also result in practical tools for enhancing young children's math language and mathematics skills.

This project is focused on evaluating the role of early math language skills in the acquisition of early mathematics skills. Two randomized control trials (RCTs) will be conducted. The first RCT will be used to evaluate the effects of different types of math language instruction (quantitative, spatial) on distinct aspects of mathematics (numeracy, geometry). It is expected that quantitative language instruction will improve numeracy skills and spatial language instruction will improve geometry skills. The second RCT will be used to examine the unique and joint effects of quantitative language instruction and numeracy instruction on children's numeracy skills. It is expected that both types of instruction alone will be sufficient to generate improvement on numeracy outcomes compared to an active control group, but that the combination of the two will result in enhanced numeracy performance compared to either alone. Educational goals will be integrated with and supported through engaging diverse groups of undergraduate and graduate students in hands-on research experiences, training pre- and in-service teachers on mathematical language instruction, and building collaborative relationships with early career researchers. Intervention materials including storybooks developed for the project and pre- and in-service teacher training/lesson plan materials will be made available at the completion of the project.

Measuring Early Mathematical Reasoning Skills: Developing Tests of Numeric Relational Reasoning and Spatial Reasoning

The primary aim of this study is to develop mathematics screening assessment tools for Grades K-2 over the course of four years that measure students' abilities in numeric relational reasoning and spatial reasoning. The team of researchers will develop Measures of Mathematical Reasoning Skills system, which will contain Tests of Numeric Relational Reasoning (T-NRR) and Tests of Spatial Reasoning (T-SR).

Award Number: 
1721100
Funding Period: 
Fri, 09/15/2017 to Tue, 08/31/2021
Full Description: 

Numeric relational reasoning and spatial reasoning are critical to success in later mathematics coursework, including Algebra 1, a gatekeeper to success at the post-secondary level, and success in additional STEM domains, such as chemistry, geology, biology, and engineering. Given the importance of these skills for later success, it is imperative that there are high-quality screening tools available to identify students at-risk for difficulty in these areas. The primary aim of this study is to develop mathematics screening assessment tools for Grades K-2 over the course of four years that measure students' abilities in numeric relational reasoning and spatial reasoning. The team of researchers will develop Measures of Mathematical Reasoning Skills system, which will contain Tests of Numeric Relational Reasoning (T-NRR) and Tests of Spatial Reasoning (T-SR). The measures will be intended for use by teachers and school systems to screen students to determine who is at-risk for difficulty in early mathematics, including students with disabilities. The measures will help provide important information about the intensity of support that may be needed for a given student. Three forms per grade level will be developed for both the T-NRR and T-SR with accompanying validity and reliability evidence collected. The Discovery Research K-12 program (DRK-12) seeks to significantly enhance the learning and teaching of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) by preK-12 students and teachers, through research and development of innovative resources, models and tools (RMTs). Projects in the DRK-12 program build on fundamental research in STEM education and prior research and development efforts that provide theoretical and empirical justification for proposed projects.

The development of the T-NRR and T-SR measures will follow an iterative process across five phases. The phases include (1) refining the construct; (2) developing test specifications and item models; (3) developing items; (4) field testing the items; and (5) conducting validity studies. The evidence collected and evaluated during each phase will contribute to the overall evaluation of the reliability of the measures and the validity of the interpretations made using the measures. Item models, test specifications, and item development will be continuously evaluated and refined based on data from cognitive interviews, field tests, and reviews by mathematics educators, teachers of struggling students, teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse populations, and a Technical Advisory Board. In the final phase of development of the T-NRR and T-SR, reliability of the results will be estimated and multiple sources of validity evidence will be collected to examine the concurrent and predictive relation with other criterion measures, classification accuracy, and sensitivity to growth. Approximately 4,500 students in Grades K-2 will be involved in all phases of the research including field tests and cognitive interviews. Data will be analyzed using a two-parameter IRT model to ensure item and test form comparability.

Developing and Evaluating Assessments of Problem Solving (Collaborative Research: Sondergeld)

This project builds upon the prior work by creating problem-solving measures for grades 3-5. The elementary assessments will be connected to the middle-grades assessments and will be available for use by school districts, researchers, and other education professionals seeking to effectively measure children's problem solving.

Lead Organization(s): 
Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1720661
Funding Period: 
Fri, 09/01/2017 to Tue, 08/31/2021
Full Description: 

Current state standards in mathematics are strategically focused on problem-solving skills in both content standards and practice standards. Content standards describe what math students are expected to learn at each grade level while practice standards characterize math behaviors that all students should experience (e.g., perseverance while problem solving and reasoning effectively about real-world situations). Problem solving is found at every grade level. If math teachers are expected to engage students in problem solving during everyday instruction, then students' problem-solving performance must be assessed in a manner that produces meaningful, valid, and reliable scores, without unduly burdening teachers or students. Unfortunately, most problem-solving assessments are generally framed by a set of mathematics expectations that differ from state standards. Thus, results from those assessments are disconnected from the mathematics content that students learn in the classroom. Previously, this research team has built problem-solving measures for grades 6-8, which address this gap in framing and generates meaningful, valid, and reliable scores, and do not have unintended negative consequences on students. The current project, titled Developing and Evaluating Assessments of Problem Solving (DEAP), builds upon the team's prior work by creating problem-solving measures for grades 3-5. The elementary assessments will be connected to the middle-grades assessments and will be available for use by school districts, researchers, and other education professionals seeking to effectively measure children's problem solving. The Discovery Research K-12 program (DRK-12) seeks to significantly enhance the learning and teaching of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) by preK-12 students and teachers, through research and development of innovative resources, models and tools (RMTs). Projects in the DRK-12 program build on fundamental research in STEM education and prior research and development efforts that provide theoretical and empirical justification for proposed projects.

Broadly speaking, the aims of DEAP are to (a) create three new mathematical problem-solving assessments and gather validity evidence for their use, (b) link the problem-solving measures (PSMs) with prior problem-solving measures (i.e., PSM6, PSM7, and PSM8), and (c) develop a meaningful reporting system for the PSMs. The research questions are: (a) What are the psychometric properties of the PSM3, PSM4, and PSM5 as they relate to students' problem-solving performance? (b) How does the evidence support vertical equating (linking) of the PSM3, PSM4, PSM5, PSM6, PSM7, and PSM8? (c) How do the PSM3, PSM4, and PSM5, and their related reporting systems impact teachers' instructional decision making when used formatively? Year 1 focuses on item and test development. The study will conduct cognitive interviews and administer tests with a small group of students to explore how items and tests function. Rasch (1-PL) measurement will be employed, similar to prior PSM development. Year 2 includes further pilot testing and gathering validity evidence through cognitive interviews and test administration. Year 3 has a final round of pilot testing and selection of linking items for vertical equating. Year 4 involves pilot testing the PSM series with linking items and developing a reporting system. DEAP's potential contributions to the field are three-fold. (1) Assessments will be available for use by the public. (2) A set of vertically equated problem-solving measures will allow users the opportunity to explore students' problem-solving performance as they matriculate across grade levels, which is currently not possible at the state or national level. (3) This project fills a need in the field as no set of measures uses vertical equating to assess elementary students' problem-solving performance in a rigorous fashion within the context of state testing.

Developing and Evaluating Assessments of Problem Solving (Collaborative Research: Bostic)

This project builds upon the prior work by creating problem-solving measures for grades 3-5. The elementary assessments will be connected to the middle-grades assessments and will be available for use by school districts, researchers, and other education professionals seeking to effectively measure children's problem solving.

Lead Organization(s): 
Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1720646
Funding Period: 
Fri, 09/01/2017 to Tue, 08/31/2021
Full Description: 

Current state standards in mathematics are strategically focused on problem-solving skills in both content standards and practice standards. Content standards describe what math students are expected to learn at each grade level while practice standards characterize math behaviors that all students should experience (e.g., perseverance while problem solving and reasoning effectively about real-world situations). Problem solving is found at every grade level. If math teachers are expected to engage students in problem solving during everyday instruction, then students' problem-solving performance must be assessed in a manner that produces meaningful, valid, and reliable scores, without unduly burdening teachers or students. Unfortunately, most problem-solving assessments are generally framed by a set of mathematics expectations that differ from state standards. Thus, results from those assessments are disconnected from the mathematics content that students learn in the classroom. Previously, this research team has built problem-solving measures for grades 6-8, which address this gap in framing and generates meaningful, valid, and reliable scores, and do not have unintended negative consequences on students. The current project, titled Developing and Evaluating Assessments of Problem Solving (DEAP), builds upon the team's prior work by creating problem-solving measures for grades 3-5. The elementary assessments will be connected to the middle-grades assessments and will be available for use by school districts, researchers, and other education professionals seeking to effectively measure children's problem solving.

Broadly speaking, the aims of DEAP are to (a) create three new mathematical problem-solving assessments and gather validity evidence for their use, (b) link the problem-solving measures (PSMs) with prior problem-solving measures (i.e., PSM6, PSM7, and PSM8), and (c) develop a meaningful reporting system for the PSMs. The research questions are: (a) What are the psychometric properties of the PSM3, PSM4, and PSM5 as they relate to students' problem-solving performance? (b) How does the evidence support vertical equating (linking) of the PSM3, PSM4, PSM5, PSM6, PSM7, and PSM8? (c) How do the PSM3, PSM4, and PSM5, and their related reporting systems impact teachers' instructional decision making when used formatively? Year 1 focuses on item and test development. The study will conduct cognitive interviews and administer tests with a small group of students to explore how items and tests function. Rasch (1-PL) measurement will be employed, similar to prior PSM development. Year 2 includes further pilot testing and gathering validity evidence through cognitive interviews and test administration. Year 3 has a final round of pilot testing and selection of linking items for vertical equating. Year 4 involves pilot testing the PSM series with linking items and developing a reporting system. DEAP's potential contributions to the field are three-fold. (1) Assessments will be available for use by the public. (2) A set of vertically equated problem-solving measures will allow users the opportunity to explore students' problem-solving performance as they matriculate across grade levels, which is currently not possible at the state or national level. (3) This project fills a need in the field as no set of measures uses vertical equating to assess elementary students' problem-solving performance in a rigorous fashion within the context of state testing.

Developing and Validating a Scalable, Classroom-Focused Measure of Usable Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics: The Classroom Video Analysis Instrument

This project will develop a scalable, classroom-focused measure of usable mathematics teaching knowledge that is aligned with the state standards through a classroom video analysis measure (CVA-M) in three content areas: (a) fractions for grades 4 and 5, (b) ratio and proportions for grades 6 and 7; and (c) variables, expressions, and equations for grades 6 and 7.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1720866
Funding Period: 
Fri, 09/01/2017 to Tue, 08/31/2021
Full Description: 

There is widespread agreement that for teachers to effectively teach their students having lots of knowledge is important, but not enough. To benefit instruction and student learning, teachers need to be able to access and flexibly use their knowledge in the classroom in actual teaching situations and teaching tasks. Yet, measures to assess teachers' usable knowledge have remained scarce. We still know little about how the knowledge teachers acquire as part of teacher preparation courses and professional development becomes usable, how it develops over time, and how teachers use it in the process of teaching. To address both assessment needs in this project, the project will develop a set of scalable, classroom-focused measures of usable mathematics teaching knowledge that are aligned with state standards. The new measures will extend the classroom video analysis approach, which is based on teachers' ability to analyze and respond to teaching episodes shown in short video clips of authentic classroom instruction, by aligning video clips and assessment tasks to standards. The new measures, which will be made available online, will be a valuable tool for researchers, policy makers, and school districts to monitor teacher knowledge over time and to gauge teacher preparedness for implementing state standards in mathematics. The measures will also provide new insights into usable knowledge and knowledge use and advance a much-needed theory of teacher knowledge. Finally, the project extends and refines a promising assessment methodology that can be adapted to any future content frameworks or standards and that can also be used for instrument development in other practice-based knowledge domains.

The project will develop a scalable, classroom-focused measure of usable mathematics teaching knowledge that is aligned with the state standards through a classroom video analysis measure (CVA-M) in three content areas: (a) fractions for grades 4 and 5, (b) ratio and proportions for grades 6 and 7; and (c) variables, expressions, and equations for grades 6 and 7. The project will examine the psychometric properties of the new items and scales, including the reliability of scores, and collect evidence on content, substantive, structural, and external aspects of validity to evaluate the overall construct validity of the CVA-M. The project builds on an innovative and promising assessment methodology that uses video clips of authentic classroom instruction that teachers are asked to view and analyze to elicit their usable knowledge. Teachers analyze the teaching episodes shown in the video clips from different assessment tasks that reflect authentic teaching tasks, such as diagnosing student thinking, generating mathematically targeted teacher question, or relating specific content and mathematical practices to teaching episodes shown in the clips. To develop each of the three scales, video clips will be mapped to state level content and mathematical practice standards. Assessment tasks and rubrics will also be aligned with these standards. To create items, video clips will be combined with analysis prompts that ask for a written answer, multiple-choice or rating scales. To make the constructed response items, which need to be scored by trained raters, easier to use at scale, computational approaches will be employed to develop classifiers to automate scoring. Using responses from large samples of teachers, the psychometric properties of the new CVA-M items and scales will be analyzed using factor analysis, classical test theory and item response theory. A series of validity investigations will be conducted. Teachers' scores on the new CVA-M scales will be compared to their scores on another measure of teacher knowledge, the Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) instrument, and each scale's predictive validity will be explored vis-a-vis student learning by relating teachers' CVA-M scores to their students' learning as measured by a pre-post quiz and by students' standardized test scores.

Project MAPLE: Makerspaces Promoting Learning and Engagement

The project plans to develop and study a series of metacognitive strategies that support learning and engagement for struggling middle school students during makerspace experiences. The study will focus narrowly on establishing a foundational understanding of how to ameliorate barriers to engaging in design learning through the use of metacognitive strategies.

Award Number: 
1721236
Funding Period: 
Fri, 09/01/2017 to Sat, 08/31/2019
Full Description: 

The project plans to develop and study a series of metacognitive strategies that support learning and engagement for struggling middle school students during makerspace experiences. The makerspace movement has gained recognition and momentum, which has resulted in many schools integrating makerspace technologies and related curricular practices into the classroom. The study will focus narrowly on establishing a foundational understanding of how to ameliorate barriers to engaging in design learning through the use of metacognitive strategies. The project plans to translate and apply research on the use of metacognitive strategies in supporting struggling learners to develop approaches that teachers can implement to increase opportunities for students who are the most difficult to reach academically. Project strategies, curricula, and other resources will be disseminated through existing outreach websites, research briefs, peer-reviewed publications for researchers and practitioners, and a webinar for those interested in middle-school makerspaces for diverse learners.

The research will address the paucity of studies to inform practitioners about what pedagogical supports help struggling learners engage in these makerspace experiences. The project will focus on two populations of struggling learners in middle schools, students with learning disabilities, and students at risk for academic failure. The rationale for focusing on metacognition within makerspace activities comes from the literature on students with learning disabilities and other struggling learners that suggests that they have difficulty with metacognitive thinking. Multiple instruments will be used to measure metacognitive processes found to be pertinent within the research process. The project will tentatively focus on persistence (attitudes about making), iteration (productive struggle) and intentionality (plan with incremental steps). The work will result in an evidence base around new instructional practices for middle school students who are struggling learners so that they can experience more success during maker learning experiences.

Mathematical Learning via Architectural Design and Modeling Using E-Rebuild

This project will explore the learning of mathematics through architectural tasks in an online simulation game, E-Rebuild. In the game-based architectural simulation, students will be able to complete tasks such as building and constructing structures while using mathematics and problem solving. The project will examine how to collect data about students' learning from data generated as they play the game, how students learn mathematics using the simulation, and how the simulation can be included in middle school mathematics learning.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1720533
Funding Period: 
Tue, 08/01/2017 to Sat, 07/31/2021
Full Description: 

This project will explore the learning of mathematics through architectural tasks in an online simulation game, E-Rebuild. There is a need to connect mathematics to real world contexts and problems. In the game-based architectural simulation, students will be able to complete tasks such as building and constructing structures while using mathematics and problem solving. The learning platform will be flexible so teachers can customize tasks for their students. The project will examine how to collect data about students' learning from data generated as they play the game. The project will explore how students learn mathematics using the simulation and how the simulation can be included in middle school mathematics learning.

The project includes two major research questions. First, how will the design of a scalable game-based, design-centered learning platform promote coordination and application of math representation for problem solving? Second, how and under what implementation circumstances will using a scalable architectural game-based learning platform improve students multi-stranded mathematical proficiency (i.e., understanding, problem solving and positive disposition)? A key feature of the project is stealth-assessment or data collected and logged as students use the architectural simulation activities that can be used to understand their mathematics learning. The project uses a design-based research approach to gather data from students and teachers that will inform the design of the learning environment. The qualitative and quantitative data will also be used to understand what students are learning as they play the game and how teachers are interacting with their students. The project will include a mixed methods study to compare classrooms using the architectural activities to classrooms that are using typical activities.

Foregrounding Agency Versus Structure as Models for Designing Integrated Mathematics and Computational Thinking Curriculum

This project will design and study new learning environments integrating mathematical and computational thinking. The project will examine how to design learning modules that place mathematics concepts. By exploring how different kinds of designs support learning and engagement, the project will establish a set of design principles for supporting mathematical and computational thinking.

Project Email: 
Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1742257
Funding Period: 
Fri, 09/01/2017 to Mon, 08/31/2020
Project Evaluator: 
Full Description: 

The project will design and study new learning environments integrating mathematical and computational thinking. While integrating content has been suggested as a strategy for students' learning, there has been limited investigation about how mathematics and computational thinking should be connected in learning experiences. Computational thinking is an essential skill for STEM careers including concepts such as algorithms and programming, data collection and analysis, using abstractions, and problem solving. These computational thinking concepts and practices can be related to mathematics concepts. This project will examine how to design learning modules that place mathematics concepts. By exploring how different kinds of designs support learning and engagement, the project will establish a set of design principles for supporting mathematical and computational thinking.

Using design-based research as a methodology to support iterative design and research, the project will explore two core tensions that are relevant to the integration of mathematics and computational thinking. Each tension deals with how to balance competing goals, and investigates the influence of foregrounding one goal over another. Specifically, the project will design, test, and begin to apply in schools a set of modules that contrast: 1) foregrounding mathematics vs. computational thinking; and 2) foregrounding agency vs. structure. The model of implementation includes two summers of camp sessions for middle school students, and a year of implementation in classrooms, thus allowing exploration beyond the potential for math and computational thinking to be integrated, and extending into what such integration looks like in the institutional context of schools. The research questions to be investigated include: (1) What are the advantages of modules that teach mathematics through computational thinking (foregrounding mathematics) vs. those that teach computational thinking through mathematics (foregrounding computational thinking)? (2) What are the advantages of modules that teach computational thinking through open exploration (agency) vs. game play (structure)? (3) What kinds of instructional supports do math teachers need or request as they are teaching students at the intersection of computational thinking and mathematics? The project will result in (a) a set of instructional sequences for middle school that propose productive intersections of computational thinking and mathematics, (b) an understanding of how and why these instructional sequences support diverse participation, and (c) conjectures about the support math teachers need to integrate computational thinking in their classrooms. Different sections for students will be created to compare different conditions that will foreground mathematics, computational thinking, structure or agency. Data collected will include measures of student learning, interviews, analysis of student work, and video analysis to examine student engagement and interest.

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Critical Issues in Mathematics Education 2017

This conference will continue the workshop series Critical Issues in Mathematics Education (CIME). The CIME workshops engage professional mathematicians, education researchers, teachers, and policy makers in discussions of issues critical to the improvement of mathematics education from the elementary grades through undergraduate years. The workshop will deal with the problem of providing quality math education to all, and the barriers to doing so.

Award Number: 
1738702
Funding Period: 
Sat, 04/01/2017 to Sat, 03/31/2018
Full Description: 

This conference will continue the workshop series, Critical Issues in Mathematics Education (CIME) on teaching and learning mathematics, initiated by the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) in 2004. The topic for CIME 2017 will be "Observing for Access, Power, and Participation in Mathematics Classrooms as a Strategy to Improve Mathematics Teaching and Learning". The CIME workshops engage professional mathematicians, education researchers, teachers, and policy makers in discussions of issues critical to the improvement of mathematics education from the elementary grades through undergraduate years. The workshop will deal with the problem of providing quality math education to all, and the barriers to doing so. Projects in the DRK-12 program build on fundamental research in STEM education and prior research and development efforts that provide theoretical and empirical justification for proposed projects. This work is also funded by the IUSE program which focuses on innovation in undergraduate STEM education.

The CIME workshops impact three distinct communities: research mathematicians, mathematics educators (K-16), and education researchers. Participants learn about research and development efforts that can enhance their own work and the contributions they can make to solving issues in mathematics education. Participants also connect with others concerned about those issues. Workshops are designed to recruit key individuals to the improvement of mathematics education, frame critical issues, draw attention to issues of diverse participation and success, and provide images of productive engagement for participants to draw on beyond the conference.

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