Underrepresented Populations (General)

Mini-Symposia: The Results of the African Diaspora: Developing Black Scholars in Science Education for the 21st Century in the United States, Part II

In this project, investigators will convene a group of 15 African American science educators, scientists, and doctoral student scholars and assign them to small work groups to design and conduct multi-site micro-research studies on learning activities that promote science learning and teaching. Work groups will investigate different learning and teaching approaches used in K-12 rural and urban school settings to identify effects on student science learning using quantitative, qualitative, or mixed design studies.

Award Number: 
1222560
Funding Period: 
Wed, 08/01/2012 to Thu, 07/31/2014
Full Description: 

Utilizing a conference and work group format, project investigators will convene a group of 15 African American science educators, scientists, and doctoral student scholars and assign them to small work groups to design and conduct multi-site micro-research studies on learning activities that promote elementary, middle school, and secondary science learning and teaching. A mentoring network will be established among project participants, as well, partnering experienced educators and scientists with upcoming scholars. Work groups will investigate different learning and teaching approaches used in K-12 rural and urban school settings to identify effects on student science learning using quantitative, qualitative, or mixed design studies.

The project goal is the development of a network of science education faculty members to conduct research on issues related to science learning and teaching of rural and urban students in the United States; to develop and conduct multi-site micro-research studies leading to successful scholarly publications on science learning and teaching effectiveness; to increase numbers of African American science education and science faculty members from traditionally White and Historically Black Colleges and Universities who are prepared to design and conduct rigorous research studies on science teaching and learning and to seek funding for their projects.

The project design includes a summer 2013 mini-symposium that will employ breakout sessions, plenary speakers, and work group time for the design of multi-site micro-research studies and assistance with Institutional Review Board applications. During the 2013-14 academic year, the work groups will stay in contact via electronic media as studies are conducted following the summer mini-symposium. The second symposium will take place during the 2014 National Association for Research in Science Teaching international meeting so that teams can analyze data, prepare ideas for funding projects, and begin to prepare journal articles and other means to disseminate findings. Formative and summative project evaluation will take place at different stages of the project, including one year from project completion, to determine if the project made satisfactory progress in meeting its three goals.

The studies on effective science learning and teaching strategies in different school settings will eventually provide students access to more innovative science instructional materials and science instruction. This access is paramount if students are to understand science concepts and ideas and engage in meaningful scientific data collection, analysis, and interpretation. When students experience effective science activities, especially at the middle school level, there is a greater likelihood they will perform well in science and may consider science-related college majors and careers.

Two critical areas in science education will be positively affected by this project: instructional practices in K-12 schools and the number of African American science educators and scientists conducting research, especially funded projects. Understanding science practices that are most innovative and effective in K-12 rural and urban classrooms will lead to increased student science literacy, achievement, and pursuit of science careers. These practices will be refined and shared across school systems. Collaborative research efforts advanced by the mentoring network will result in a group of science and science education scholars who can continue to build on the work begun during this project as they complete their initial round of conference paper presentations, manuscripts for publication consideration, and grant proposals.

Assessing Secondary Teachers' Algebraic Habits of Mind (Collaborative Research: Stevens)

This collaborative project is developing instruments to assess secondary teachers' Mathematical Habits of Mind (MHoM). These habits bring parsimony, focus, and coherence to teachers' mathematical thinking and, in turn, to their work with students. This work fits into a larger research agenda with the ultimate goal of understanding the connections between secondary teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching and secondary students' mathematical understanding and achievement.

Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1222496
Funding Period: 
Wed, 08/15/2012 to Sun, 07/31/2016
Full Description: 

Boston University, Education Development Center, Inc., and St. Olaf College are collaborating on Assessing Secondary Teachers' Algebraic Habits of Mind (ASTAHM) to develop instruments to assess secondary teachers' Mathematical Habits of Mind (MHoM). These habits bring parsimony, focus, and coherence to teachers' mathematical thinking and, in turn, to their work with students. MHoM is a critical component of mathematical knowledge for teaching at the secondary level. Recognizing the need for a scientific approach to investigate the ways in which MHoM is an indicator of teacher effectiveness, the partnership is researching the following questions:

1. How do teachers who engage MHoM when doing mathematics for themselves also bring MHoM to their teaching practice?

2. How are teachers' engagement with MHoM and their use of these habits in teaching related to student understanding and achievement?

To investigate these questions, ASTAHM is developing two instruments: a paper and pencil (P&P) assessment and an observation protocol that measure teachers' knowledge and classroom use, respectively, of MHoM.

The work is being conducted in two phases: (1) an instrument-refinement and learning phase, and (2) an instrument-testing and research phase. Objectives of Phase 1 are to gather data to refine the project's existing instruments and to learn about the bridge factors that impact the relationship between teachers' knowledge and classroom use of MHoM. Specific research activities include: administering the pilot P&P assessment to 40 teachers, videotaping Algebra instructions of 8 teachers, performing initial testing and refinement of the instruments, and using the data to analyze the bridge factors. Phase 2 is a large-scale study involving field-testing the P&P assessment with 200 teachers, videotaping 20 teachers and studying them using the observation protocol, collecting achievement data from 3000 students, and checking P&P content validity with 200 mathematicians. With these validated instruments in hand, the project will then conduct an investigation into the above research questions. Lesley University's Program Evaluation and Research Group (PERG) is the external evaluator. PERG is assessing ASTAHM's overall success in developing valid and reliable instruments to investigate the extent to which a relationship exists between teachers' MHoM and their classroom practice, as well as student achievement. Evaluators are also investigating whether users' coding guides for both instruments enable field-testers to effectively use and adequately score them.

This work fits into a larger research agenda with the ultimate goal of understanding the connections between secondary teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching and secondary students' mathematical understanding and achievement. The MHoM construct is closely aligned with the Common Core State Standards-Mathematics (CCSS-M); especially its Standards for Mathematical Practice. For example, both place importance on seeking and using mathematical structure. Thus the instruments this project produces can act as pre- and post-measures of the effectiveness of professional development programs in preparing teachers to implement the CCSS-M. Mathematics teacher knowledge at the secondary level is an understudied field. Through analyses of the practices and habits of mind that teachers bring to their work, ASTAHM is developing instruments that can be used to shed light on effective secondary teaching.


Project Videos

2019 STEM for All Video Showcase

Title: Studying Teachers' Mathematical Habits of Mind

Presenter(s): Sarah Sword, Eden Badertscher, Al Cuoco, Miriam Gates, Ryota Matsuura, & Glenn Stevens

2017 STEM for All Video Showcase
Title: Assessing Secondary Teachers' Algebraic Habits of Mind

Presenter(s): Sarah Sword, Courtney Arthur, Al Cuoco, Miriam Gates, Ryota Matsuura, & Glenn Stevens

2016 STEM for All Video Showcase

Title: Assessing Secondary Teachers' Algebraic Habits of Mind

Presenter(s): Ryota Matsuura, Al Cuoco, Glenn Stevens, & Sarah Sword


Learning Mathematics of the City in the City

This project is developing teaching modules that engage high school students in learning and using mathematics. Using geo-spatial technologies, students explore their city with the purpose of collecting data they bring back to the formal classroom and use as part of their mathematics lessons. This place-based orientation helps students connect their everyday and school mathematical thinking. Researchers are investigating the impact of place-based learning on students' attitudes, beliefs, and self-concepts about mathematics in urban schools.

Lead Organization(s): 
Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1222430
Funding Period: 
Sat, 09/01/2012 to Mon, 08/31/2015
Full Description: 

Learning Mathematics of the City in The City is an exploratory project that is developing teaching modules that engage high school students in learning mathematics and using the mathematics they learn. Using geo-spatial technologies, students explore their city with the purpose of collecting data they bring back to the formal classroom and use as part of their mathematics lessons. This place-based orientation is helping students connect their everyday and school mathematical thinking.

Researchers are investigating the impact of place-based learning on students' attitudes, beliefs, and self-concepts about mathematics in urban schools. Specifically, researchers want to understand how place-based learning helps students apply mathematics to address questions about their local environment. Researchers are also learning about the opportunities for teaching mathematics using carefully planned lessons enhanced by geo-spatial technologies. Data are being collected through student interviews, classroom observations, student questionnaires, and student work.

As the authors explain, "The use of familiar or engaging contexts is widely accepted as productive in the teaching and learning of mathematics." By working in urban neighborhoods with large populations of low-income families, this exploratory project is illustrating what can be done to engage students in mathematics and mathematical thinking. The products from the project include student materials, software adaptations, lesson plans, and findings from their research. These products enable further experimentation with place-based mathematics learning and lead the way for connecting mathematical activities in school and outside of school.

SimScientists Assessments: Physical Science Links

The goal of this project is to develop and validate a middle school physical science assessment strand composed of four suites of simulation-based assessments for integrating into balanced (use of multiple measures), large-scale accountability science testing systems. It builds on the design templates, technical infrastructure, and evidence of the technical quality, feasibility, and instructional utility of the NSF-funded Calipers II project. The evaluation plan addresses both formative and summative aspects.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1221614
Funding Period: 
Mon, 10/01/2012 to Fri, 09/30/2016
Full Description: 

The goal of this project is to develop and validate a middle school physical science assessment strand composed of four suites of simulation-based assessments for integrating into balanced (use of multiple measures), large-scale accountability science testing systems. It builds on the design templates, technical infrastructure, and evidence of the technical quality, feasibility, and instructional utility of the NSF-funded Calipers II project. The assessment strand consists of multilevel (increased thinking levels) assessment designs grounded on evidence-centered principles that target practices and key disciplinary conceptual schemes, such as matter, motion, energy, and waves identified in the National Research Council report "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Knowledge, and Core Ideas". The assessment model vertically links simulations (interactive with feedback to students, coaching, and reflection); curriculum-embedded assessments for formative use; unit benchmark assessment for interim summative purposes; and a set of "signature tasks" (short-term simulations on recurring problem types). Members of the Advisory Board and an Assessment Review Panel actively participate in the development and implementation of this effort. Heller Research Associates is the external evaluator. The evaluation plan addresses both formative and summative aspects.

The project's theory of action is based on model-based learning and evidence-centered design reflective of the notion that the construct of science is multidimensional, requiring (a) understanding how the components of a science conceptual system interact to produce behaviors of the system; and (b) the use of inquiry practices to investigate the dynamic behaviors and underlying components' interactions of the system. A total of eight research and development questions guide the scope of work. The questions focus on: (a) validity (substantive and technical quality) of the individual simulation assessments; and (b) classroom implementation (feasibility, fidelity, utility). The methodology for test construction and revision follows the testing standards of major professional organizations (i.e., American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council of Measurement in Education) through three development phases. Phase I (Assessment Development) focuses on the alignment, quality, and prototype testing, including leverage and modification of prior work, and design of new assessment suites and signature tasks. Phase II (Pilot and Validation Studies) deals with the testing of all assessments, research instruments, and study methods. Phase III (Cross-Validation Studies) substantiates the multilevel integration assessment model, cross-validates the assessments piloted in Phase II, and establishes a reliable argument that the assessments measure the intended content and inquiry practices suitable for use in district and state-level assessment systems.

Expected outcomes are: (1) a research-informed and field-tested physical science simulations-based assessment model with high potential for extended use in middle school grades; and (2) a policy brief that provides recommendations for integrating assessments into districts and state large-scale, multi-level, balanced science assessments.

Partnerships for Early Childhood Curriculum Development: Readiness Through Integrative Science and Engineering (RISE)

The RISE project is creating curriculum resources for dual language learners (DLLs) in science, technology and engineering (STE). Participants include teachers in pre-K programs in the Boston area selected to target Hispanic and Chinese students and their families. The curriculum will be based on the Massachusetts framework, one of only a few states with pre-K standards. The evaluation will monitor both the progress of the research and development and the dissemination to the target audiences.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1221065
Funding Period: 
Sat, 09/01/2012 to Mon, 08/31/2015
Full Description: 

The RISE project is creating curriculum resources for dual language learners (DLLs) in science, technology and engineering (STE). Participants include teachers in pre-K programs in the Boston area selected to target Hispanic and Chinese students and their families. University partners include Tufts, Rutgers, Miami, and Northern Iowa, who will work with ABCD Head Start. An innovative feature is the incorporation of family funds of knowledge as a basis for the curriculum development. There are two research questions. 1. What are the most productive procedures for appropriate application of the full integrated RISE curriculum in Head Start classrooms serving DLL children? 2. What is the impact of the fully integrated RISE curriculum versus the comparison condition on teacher attitudes, classroom instruction, and quality, home-school relationships, and DLL children's STE knowledge and approaches to learning? In years 1 and two, 5 teachers are being supported, with 10 teachers in year 3. Participating parents are 40, 105, and 180 for years 1, 2 and 3. Professional development and mentoring is being provided for the teachers, and parent-teacher discussion groups are facilitating communication.

The research data is based on extensive classroom observations as well as interviews and surveys. For question 2, the project plans a quasi-experimental study of 10 RISE and 8 randomly selected comparison classrooms sampling 10 students in each classroom. Data will be analyzed with ANCOVA. The curriculum will be based on the Massachusetts framework, one of only a few states with pre-K standards. The evaluation will monitor both the progress of the research and development and the dissemination to the target audiences.

The curriculum materials are to be posted on the Tufts University website and a commercial publisher is being sought. Units are to be 6-12 weeks in duration, with a typical classroom engaging approximately four units. With the growing population of DLL students and the recognition that early childhood education in STE makes significant contributions to children's education, this project has the potential for national impacts.

Exploring the Efficacy of Engineering is Elementary (E4)

This project is developing evidence about the efficacy of the Engineering is Elementary curriculum under ideal conditions by studying the student and teacher-level effects of implementation. The project seeks to determine the core elements of the curriculum that support successful use. The findings from this study have broad implications for how engineering design curricular can be developed and implemented at the elementary level.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1220305
Funding Period: 
Sat, 09/15/2012 to Fri, 08/31/2018
Full Description: 

This project is developing evidence about the efficacy of the Engineering is Elementary curriculum under ideal conditions by studying the student and teacher-level effects of implementation. The rigorous level of evidence that is developed in this study has significant utility as a support for the kinds of elementary engineering curricula that are needed as the Next Generation Science Standards come online and emphasize engineering design. The study is a randomized control trial where the assignment of teachers will be to the EiE curricular materials or to a counterfactual condition, the use of more standard design engineering curricular materials. The project studies the impact of the use of the curriculum on student learning and on teachers' use of the curriculum in a fidelity of implementation study to determine the core elements of the curriculum that support successful use. The study examines the implementation of the curricular materials in a number of contexts to more fully understand the conditions under which they work best and to explicate what aspects of such project-based inquiry materials most support student learning.

This study uses a randomized cluster trial to examine the efficacy of the EiE curriculum across 75 schools in the treatment and 75 schools in the control group samples. Two teachers per school are included in one treatment/control condition per school. Outcome measures for students include performances on project-specific measures that have been examined for technical quality of validity and reliability. A set of additional research-based survey instruments validated for use in the EiE context are also used to collect data about students' attitudes, perceptions, interest and motivation toward science and engineering. A robust fidelity of implementation research plan is being implemented that will include teachers surveys, pre and post assessments, teacher logs, as well as student engineering journals and student work from classroom implementation. The fidelity of implementation is further studied with forty treatment and ten control teachers through classroom observations and interviews.

The findings from this study have broad implications for how engineering design curricular can be developed and implemented at the elementary level. Engineering design has not been emphasized in the elementary classroom, lagging behind instruction in science with which teachers are more familiar. The results of this study inform practitioners and policy makers about what works, for whom and under what conditions. Information about the different contexts in which the curriculum has been implemented supports the dissemination of evidence-based research and development practices to strengthen STEM learning for all students.

CAREER: Supporting Computational Algorithmic Thinking (SCAT)—Exploring the Development of Computational Algorithmic Thinking Capabilities in African-American Middle School Girls

The project at Spelman College includes activities that develop computational thinking and encourage middle school, African-American girls to consider careers in computer science. Over a three-year period, the girls attend summer camp sessions of two weeks where they learn to design interactive games. Experts in Computational Algorithmic Thinking as well as undergraduate, computer science majors at Spelman College guide the middle-school students in their design of games and exploration of related STEM careers.

Lead Organization(s): 
Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1737442
Funding Period: 
Sun, 07/15/2012 to Sun, 06/30/2019
Full Description: 

The Supporting Computational Algorithmic Thinking (SCAT) project at Spelman College includes activities that develop computational thinking and encourage middle school, African-American girls to consider careers in computer science. Over a three-year period, the girls attend summer camp sessions of two weeks where they learn to design interactive games. They participate in workshops, field trips, and game-design competitions. Experts in Computational Algorithmic Thinking as well as undergraduate, computer science majors at Spelman College guide the middle-school students in their design of games and exploration of related STEM careers.

Research on the development of Computational Algorithmic Thinking is an integral part of the project. The researcher is investigating how middle-school girls develop computational thinking and problem solving skills. Game design has been shown to be an area that is attractive to adolescents and it requires extensive problem solving and computational algorithmic thinking. Within the context of designing games individually and within groups, the researcher is assessing how the girls develop computational algorithmic thinking, and what difficulties they experience. Researchers are also assessing how the project experiences influence the students' self-perceptions of themselves as problem solvers. At the same time, the girls engaged in educational experiences where they are expected to gain knowledge in mathematics, programming, and reasoning, as well as game design. Research data consists of artifacts that the students have created, observations, participant journals, and interviews.

Computational Algorithmic Thinking is an essential skill for most STEM careers. African-American women are underrepresented in many STEM fields and especially in computer science. The goals of the project are to prepare girls with these essential skills and to increase their confidence in participating in STEM education. The project is also exposing participating girls to a wide variety of STEM careers. In addition, the materials, lesson plans, and activities generated in the project are available to be used, without charge, by other groups interested in designing similar programs.

This project was previously funded under award #1150098.

CAREER: Learning to Support Productive Collective Argumentation in Secondary Mathematics Classes

Research has shown that engaging students, including students from underrepresented groups, in appropriately structured reasoning activities, including argumentation, may lead to enhanced learning. This project will provide information about how teachers learn to support collective argumentation and will allow for the development of professional development materials for prospective and practicing teachers that will enhance their support for productive collective argumentation.

Award Number: 
1149436
Funding Period: 
Sun, 07/01/2012 to Sat, 06/30/2018
Full Description: 

Doing mathematics involves more than simply solving problems; justifying mathematical claims is an important part of doing mathematics. In fact, proving and justifying are central goals of learning mathematics. Recently, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics has again raised the issue of making and critiquing arguments as a central practice for students studying mathematics. If students are to learn to make and critique arguments within their mathematics classes, teachers must be prepared to support their students in learning to argue appropriately in mathematics. This learning often occurs during class discussions in which arguments are made public for all students in the class. The act of creating arguments together in a classroom is called collective argumentation. Teachers need to be able to support students in productively engaging in collective argumentation, but research has not yet shown how they learn to do so. This project will document how mathematics teachers learn to support their students in engaging in productive collective argumentation. The research team will follow a cohort of participants (college students majoring in mathematics education) through their mathematics education coursework, observing their engagement in collective argumentation and opportunities to learn about supporting collective argumentation. The team will continue to follow the participants into their first two years of teaching, focusing on how their support for collective argumentation evolves over time. During their first two years of teaching, the research team and participants will work together to analyze the participants' support for collective argumentation in order to help the participants develop more effective ways to support collective argumentation.

Research has shown that engaging students, including students from underrepresented groups, in appropriately structured reasoning activities, including argumentation, may lead to enhanced learning. This project will provide information about how teachers learn to support collective argumentation and will allow for the development of professional development materials for prospective and practicing teachers that will enhance their support for productive collective argumentation.

Morehouse College DR K-12 Pre-service STEM Teacher Initiative

This project recruited high school African American males to begin preparation for science, technology, engineering and mathematics teaching careers. The goal of the program was to recruit and prepare students for careers in secondary mathematics and science teaching thus increasing the number of African Americans students in STEM. The research will explore possible reasons why the program is or is not successful for recruiting and retaining students in STEM Teacher Education programs  

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1119512
Funding Period: 
Fri, 07/15/2011 to Sat, 06/30/2018
Project Evaluator: 
Melissa K. Demetrikopoulos
Full Description: 

Morehouse College proposed a research and development project to recruit high school African American males to begin preparation for secondary school science, technology, engineering and mathematics(STEM) teaching as a career. The major goal of the program is to recruit and prepare students for careers in secondary mathematics and science teaching thus increasing the number of African Americans students in STEM. The research will explore possible reasons why the program is or is not successful for recruiting and retaining students in STEM Teacher Education programs including: (a) How do students who remain in STEM education differ from those who leave and how do these individual factors (e.g. student preparation, self-efficacy, course work outcomes, attitudes toward STEM/STEM education, connectivity to STEM/STEM education communities, learning styles, etc) enhance or inhibit interest in STEM teaching among African American males? (b) What organizational and programmatic factors (e.g. high school summer program, Saturday Academy, pre-freshman program, summer research experience, courses, enhanced mentoring, cyber-infrastructure, college admissions guidance, leadership training, instructional laboratory, program management, faculty/staff engagement and availability, Atlanta Public Schools and Morehouse College articulation and partnership) affect (enhance or inhibit) interest in STEM teaching among African American males?

This pre-service program for future secondary STEM teachers recruits promising African American male students in eleventh grade and prepares them for entry into college.  The program provides academic guidance and curriculum-specific activities for college readiness, and creates preparation for secondary science and math teaching careers.   This project is housed within the Division of Science and Mathematics at Morehouse College and engages in ongoing collaboration with the Atlanta Public School (APS) system and Fulton County School District (FCS). The APS-FCS-MC collaboration fosters access and success of underrepresented students through (a) early educational intervention practices; (b) enhanced academic preparation; and (c) explicit student recruitment. 

The program consists of six major program components: High School Summer Program; Saturday Academy I, II, and III; Pre-Freshman Summer Program; and Summer Research Experience, which begins in the summer between the student’s junior and senior years of high school and supports the student through his sophomore year of college.  To date, collaborations between education and STEM faculty as well as between Morehouse, APS, and FCS faculty have resulted in development and implementation of all six program components.   Students spent six weeks in an intensive summer program with a follow-up Saturday Academy during their senior year before formally beginning their academic careers at Morehouse College. The program integrates STEM education with teacher preparation and mentoring in order to develop secondary teachers who have mastery in both a STEM discipline as well as educational theory. 

This pre-service program for future teachers recruited promising eleventh grade African American male students from the Atlanta Public School District to participate in a four-year program that will track them into the Teacher Preparation program at Morehouse College. The research focuses on the utility and efficacy of early recruitment of African American male students to STEM teaching careers as a mechanism to increase the number of African American males in STEM teaching careers.

Teacher Residency Academy Alliance

This project will investigate the implementation of a Teacher Residency Academy model to recruit, license, induct, employ, and retain middle school and secondary science teachers for high-need schools that serve more than 119,000 diverse students. The Alliance will: create a high-quality, rigorous, and clinically-based teacher preparation program for aspiring middle and secondary science teachers; recruit and support diverse science educators and contribute to the knowledge base regarding the implementation of a clinically-based science teacher.

Lead Organization(s): 
Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1119485
Funding Period: 
Sat, 10/01/2011 to Mon, 09/30/2013
Full Description: 

Teacher residency academies (TRAs) are gaining attention as a powerful tool for teacher preparation and professional development; however, there is a lack of empirical study demonstrating their merit. The goal of the Teacher Residency Academy Alliance (TRA2) - a partnership among Jackson State University, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Xavier University of Louisiana, and seven diverse urban and rural school districts in Mississippi and Louisiana - is to investigate the implementation of a TRA model to recruit, license, induct, employ, and retain 28 middle school and secondary science teachers for high-need schools that serve more than 119,000 diverse students. The Alliance will accomplish its goal by completing the following specific objectives: create a high quality, rigorous, and clinically-based teacher preparation program for aspiring middle and secondary science teachers; recruit, prepare, employ, and support an increased number of diverse (e.g., African American), effective middle and secondary science educators in high-need urban and rural schools; and contribute to the knowledge base regarding the implementation of a clinically-based science teacher preparation for middle and secondary classrooms in diverse schools. The project will enable one cohort of 28 teachers to successfully complete the TRA2 program and obtaining state licensure/certification in science teaching, a master's degree, and initiation to National Board certification.

The project's focus on middle school and secondary science helps make TRA2 unique in its approach to increase the number of high quality, culturally responsive, and licensed middle and secondary science teachers prepared to teach in the nation's high-need urban and rural schools. Project outcomes of this two year project are expected to inform the design of additional TRAs that will serve as a novel alternative to the traditional teacher preparation and post-baccalaureate certification programs common throughout the nation.

The study design will be formative. The data obtained through surveys of teachers, district leaders, and principals, telephone interviews of mentors, and from extant data, will provide important information regarding the implementation of TRA2.

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