# Publication

## Creating Inclusive PreK–12 STEM Learning Environments

Broadening participation in PreK–12 STEM provides ALL students with STEM learning experiences that can prepare them for civic life and the workforce.

Author/Presenter:
Malcom Butler
Cory Buxton
Odis Johnson Jr.
Leanne Ketterlin-Geller
Catherine McCulloch
Natalie Nielsen
Arthur Powell
Year:
2018
Short Description:

This brief offers insights from National Science Foundation-supported research for education leaders and policymakers who are broadening participation in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM). Many of these insights confirm knowledge that has been reported in research literature; however, some offer a different perspective on familiar challenges.

## Backward Transfer Influences from Quadratic Functions Instruction on Students’ Prior Ways of Covariational Reasoning about Linear Functions

The study reported in this article examined the ways in which new mathematics learning influences students’ prior ways of reasoning. We conceptualize this kind of influence as a form of transfer of learning called backward transfer. The focus of our study was on students’ covariational reasoning about linear functions before and after they participated in a multi-lesson instructional unit on quadratic functions. The subjects were 57 students from two authentic algebra classrooms at two local high schools.

Author/Presenter:
Charles Hohensee
Sara Gartland
Laura Willoughby
Matthew Melville
Year:
2021
Short Description:

The study reported in this article examined the ways in which new mathematics learning influences students’ prior ways of reasoning. Authors conceptualize this kind of influence as a form of transfer of learning called backward transfer. The focus of the study was on students’ covariational reasoning about linear functions before and after they participated in a multi-lesson instructional unit on quadratic functions.

## Cognitive Instructional Principles in Elementary Mathematics Classrooms: A Case of Teaching Inverse Relations

Instructional principles gleaned from cognitive science play a critical role in improving classroom teaching. This study examines how three cognitive instructional principles including worked examples, representations, and deep questions are used in eight experienced elementary teachers’ early algebra lessons in the U.S. Based on the analysis of 32 videotaped lessons of inverse relations, we found that most teachers spent sufficient class time on worked examples; however, some lessons included repetitive examples that also included irrelevant practice problems.

Author/Presenter:
Meixia Ding
Ryan Hassler
Xiaobao Li
Year:
2020
Short Description:

This study examines how three cognitive instructional principles including worked examples, representations, and deep questions are used in eight experienced elementary teachers’ early algebra lessons in the U.S.

## Understanding of the Properties of Operations: A Cross-Cultural Analysis

This study examines how sampled Chinese and U.S. third and fourth grade students (NChina=167,NUS=97) understand the commutative, associative, and distributive properties. These students took both pre- and post-tests conducted at the beginning and end of a school year. Comparisons between students’ pre- and post-tests within and across countries indicate different learning patterns. Overall, Chinese students demonstrate a much better understanding than their U.S. counterparts.
Author/Presenter:
Meixia Ding
Xiaobao Li
Ryan Hassler
Eli Barnett
Year:
2021
Short Description:

This study examines how sampled Chinese and U.S. third and fourth grade students (NChina=167,NUS=97) understand the commutative, associative, and distributive properties.

## Teaching Early Algebra through Example-based Problem Solving: Insights from Chinese and U.S. Elementary Classrooms

Drawing on rich classroom observations of educators teaching in China and the U.S., this book details an innovative and effective approach to teaching algebra at the elementary level, namely, "teaching through example-based problem solving" (TEPS).

Author/Presenter:
Meixia Ding
Year:
2021
Short Description:

Drawing on rich classroom observations of educators teaching in China and the U.S., this book details an innovative and effective approach to teaching algebra at the elementary level, namely, "teaching through example-based problem solving" (TEPS).

## “Zooming In” on Robotics during COVID-19: A Preservice Teacher, an Engineering Student, and a 5th Grader Engineer Robotic Flowers via Zoom

The COVID-19 induced school shutdown dramatically decreased students’ hands-on STEM learning opportunities. An NSF-funded program partnering preservice teachers and undergraduate engineering students to teach robotics to fifth graders was adapted to a virtual format via Zoom. A case study intimately explored one team’s experience as they engineered bio-inspired robots over five weekly sessions. Zoom recordings, written reflections, and lesson slides were analyzed to describe how the virtual context shaped the lesson and influenced the preservice teacher’s experience.

Author/Presenter:
Jennifer Kidd
Krishna Kaipa
Kristie Gutierrez
Pilar Pazos
Orlando Ayala
Stacie Ringleb
Year:
2020
Short Description:

An NSF-funded program partnering preservice teachers and undergraduate engineering students to teach robotics to fifth graders was adapted to a virtual format via Zoom. A case study intimately explored one team’s experience as they engineered bio-inspired robots over five weekly sessions.

## It’s Virtually Possible: Rethinking Preservice Teachers’ Field Experiences in the Age of COVID-19 and Beyond

This chapter offers lessons learned by teacher educators who guided preservice teachers in the modification of hands-on engineering lessons for virtual implementation during the spring 2020 semester as part of an NSF-funded project. PSTs delivered engineering lessons both synchronously and asynchronously to elementary school students and reported positive learning opportunities, gaining confidence and competence from their experiences.

Author/Presenter:
Kristie S. Gutierrez
Jennifer J. Kidd
Min Jung Lee
Year:
2021
Short Description:

This chapter offers lessons learned by teacher educators who guided preservice teachers in the modification of hands-on engineering lessons for virtual implementation during the spring 2020 semester as part of an NSF-funded project.

## Competencies and Behaviors Observed When Students Solve Geometry Proof Problems: An Interview Study with Smartpen Technology

This peer-reviewed research journal publication addresses one of the grant goals with respect to how students performed on a set of proof tasks. Student work was documented through the use of smartpen technology which allowed the researchers to "track" students' written work on the proof tasks as well as hear the students' explanations of their thinking about the tasks. Although the two tasks highlighted in this paper were relatively routine triangle congruent proofs, only 7 out of 23 of the sampled students were successful on both proofs.

Author/Presenter:
Michelle Cirillo
Jenifer Hummer
Year:
2021
Short Description:

This peer-reviewed research journal publication addresses one of the grant goals with respect to how students performed on a set of proof tasks.

Resource(s):

## Teachers Collaborating in Communities of Mathematics Immersion

Beyond initial college preparation, secondary teachers in the United States have few professional opportunities to do and learn challenging mathematics, especially incollaboration with colleagues. The Mathematics Immersion for Secondary Teachers at Scale program engages sets of teachers in local school sites, connected synchronously and asynchronously to colleagues in other sites, in doing mathematics designed to promote experiences of mathematical immersion, community, and connection to the work of teaching.

Author/Presenter:
Daniel J. Heck
Pippa Hoover
Evelyn M. Gordon
Matthew McLeod
Year:
2020
Short Description:

The Mathematics Immersion for Secondary Teachers at Scale program engages sets of teachers in local school sites, connected synchronously and asynchronously to colleagues in other sites, in doing mathematics designed to promote experiences of mathematical immersion, community, and connection to the work of teaching. This study of two groups of sites over one year examines fidelity to the program as a model for systematically providing these opportunities, and the extent to which teacher participants experienced immersion, community, and connection in their collaborative work with the course facilitator and their local and distant colleagues.

## Networking Frameworks: A Method for Analyzing the Complexities of Classroom Cultures Focusing on Justifying

In this paper, we network five frameworks (cognitive demand, lesson cohesion, cognitive engagement, collective argumentation, and student contribution) for an analytic approach that allows us to present a more holistic picture of classrooms which engage students in justifying. We network these frameworks around the edges of the instructional triangle as a means to coordinate them to illustrate the observable relationships among teacher, students(s), and content.

Author/Presenter:
Eva Thanheiser
Kathleen Melhuish
Amanda Sugimoto
Brenda Rosencrans
Ruth Heaton