Standards

The Validity of Technology-Enhanced Assessment in Geometry

This project contributes to the small research base by exploring the validity of Technology-Enhanced Items (TEIs) in the context of elementary geometry. The project addresses three research questions: 1) To what extent are TEIs a valid measurement of geometry standards in the elementary grades?; 2) To what extent do TEIs provide an improved measurement compared to SR items?; and 3) What are the general characteristics of mathematics standards that might be better measured through TEIs?

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1316557
Funding Period: 
Thu, 08/01/2013 to Thu, 12/31/2015
Full Description: 

Assessment developers, state departments of education, and national consortia have focused extensive efforts on including Technology-Enhanced Items (TEIs) on summative and formative assessments. TEIs have a number of potential benefits over traditional, selected-response (SR) items, including the potential to measure higher-level constructs, the reduction of the effects of test-taking skills and guessing, the capture of rich diagnostic information, the reduction of cognitive load from non-relevant constructs, and the engaging nature of their design. The first three benefits are true of constructed-response (CR) items, but TEIs have the added benefit of being automatically scored by computer. Despite the potential benefits of TEIs, and the strong push to include these types of items in assessments, there is a death of research on the validity of inferences made by TEIs and on whether TEIs provide improved measurement over traditional item types. The Validity of Technology-Enhanced Assessment in Geometry (VTAG) project contributes to the small research base by exploring the validity of TEIs in the context of elementary geometry.

The project addresses three research questions:

RQ1: To what extent are TEIs a valid measurement of geometry standards in the elementary grades?

RQ2: To what extent do TEIs provide an improved measurement compared to SR items?

RQ3: What are the general characteristics of mathematics standards that might be better measured through TEIs?

To address these research questions, the researchers develop 20 items (ten SR items and 10 TEIs) for each of the seven Common Core State Standards in fourth and fifth grade geometry. The researchers collect validity evidence using expert review, cognitive labs, and classroom administration of the items. The first two research questions are addressed by evaluating the validity of the items based on a variety of sources, including test content, internal structure, the relationship to other variables, and student response processes. To address the third research question, informed by the results of the prior two, the researchers use qualitative analysis to identify common themes of the standards that were identified as being better measured through TEIs.

Enhancing State Implementation of College and Career Ready Standards in Mathematics

Technical assistance is being provided to key leaders in state education agencies (SEAs) to: 1) build SEA leaders' knowledge about effective mathematical professional development research; 2) deepen their understanding about necessary supports and structures that should be in place; and 3) enable SEA leaders to incorporate what they learn and analyze to their existing mathematics college- and career-readiness standards implementation plans.

Award Number: 
1259092
Funding Period: 
Thu, 08/01/2013 to Thu, 07/31/2014
Full Description: 

The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) is providing technical assistance to key leaders in state education agencies (SEAs) to: 1) build SEA leaders' knowledge about effective mathematical professional development research; 2) deepen their understanding about necessary supports and structures that should be in place at the SEA and district level to scale up reform efforts needed to successfully implement the new college- and career-readiness standards; and 3) enable SEA leaders to incorporate what they learn and analyze, with the help of experts and peers, their existing mathematics college- and career-readiness standards implementation plans to ensure their plans are reflective of the research and best practice.

To reach these goals, CCSSO is inviting two key leaders from each state to a national meeting in the Washington, DC area where they will interact with and receive feedback from national mathematics education experts and peers on how to strengthen, revise and refine their standards implementation plans. The project is guided by an advisory group consisting of a broad range of experts in mathematics, mathematics research and mathematics practice. The project is creating a tool that will allow state leaders to evaluate the quality of their implementation plans based on research and promising practices. State teams have access to the experts and CCSSO personnel following the national meeting as the teams refine their implementation plans.

Engineering for All (EfA)

This project creates, tests and revises two-six week prototypical modules for middle school technology education classes, using the unifying themes and important social contexts of food and water. The modules employ engineering design as the core pedagogy and integrate content and practices from the standards for college and career readiness.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1316601
Funding Period: 
Sun, 09/15/2013 to Wed, 08/31/2016
Full Description: 

The Engineering for All project creates, tests and revises two-six week prototypical modules for middle school technology education classes, using the unifying themes and important social contexts of food and water. The modules employ engineering design as the core pedagogy and integrate content and practices from the standards for college and career readiness. Embedded assessments are developed and tested to make student learning visible to both teachers and students. Professional development for a limited group of teachers is used to increase their knowledge of engineering design and to test instruments being developed to measure (a) student and teacher capacity to employ informed design practices and (b) teacher design pedagogical content knowledge.

The project leadership is experienced at creating materials for engineering and technology and in providing professional development for teachers. The assessments and instruments are created by educational researchers. The advisory board includes engineers, science and engineering educators, and educational researchers to guide the development of the modules, the assessments and the instruments. An external evaluator reviews the protocols and their implementation.

This project has the potential to provide exemplary materials and assessments for engineering/technology education that address standards, change teacher practice, and increase the capacity of the engineering/technology education community to do research.

Cross-National Comparison of School and District Supports for High-Quality Mathematics Instruction in the US and China

This RAPID project is a cross-national comparative study of U.S. and Chinese instructional support systems, building from earlier data about mathematics teaching and learning in large urban school districts of both the United States and the People's Republic of China. The study uses quantitative methods to compare and contrast the effectiveness of supports (e.g., professional development, teacher networks, school leadership) in improving teachers' instructional practices and student achievement using comparable instrumentation.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1321828
Funding Period: 
Sun, 09/15/2013 to Sun, 08/31/2014
Full Description: 

Since the publication of the result that students from Shanghai, China, outperformed students from all other participating countries on the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in mathematics, researchers have sought to understand why Chinese mathematics education appears to be both more successful at boosting student learning and more equitably distributed. This RAPID project is a cross-national comparative study of U.S. and Chinese instructional support systems, building from earlier data about mathematics teaching and learning in large urban school districts of both the United States and the People's Republic of China. The work is being conducted by researchers from Vanderbilt University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and Beijing Normal University. The study uses quantitative methods to compare and contrast the effectiveness of supports (e.g., professional development, teacher networks, school leadership) in improving teachers' instructional practices and student achievement using comparable instrumentation.

The study contributes to research and policy in several ways. First, it is helping to identify supports that have been particularly effective in improving mathematics teaching and learning in China. This should inform current theories about how to best support mathematics education in the United States. Second, the cross-nationally validated instruments used to collect the data can be used by other researchers investigating curricular reform implementation cross-nationally. The findings of this study are especially relevant to district leaders as they develop support and accountability systems to effectively implement the content and practice standards of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics.

This award is co-funded by NSF's International Science and Engineering Section, Office of International and Integrative Activities.

Modeling Scientific Practice in High School Biology: A Next Generation Instructional Resource

This project addresses the need for a curricular resource package to support a high school biology course fully aligned to the core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and scientific practices of College and Career Readiness standards. The project will develop a suite of resources including educative curricular materials, pedagogical tools, intensive teacher professional development, and video documentation of exemplary implementation and investigate the impact of the instructional resource on teacher and student learning.

Award Number: 
1348990
Funding Period: 
Tue, 10/01/2013 to Fri, 09/30/2016
Full Description: 

This project addresses an immediate challenge facing high school science education: the need for a curricular resource package to support a high school biology course fully aligned to the core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and scientific practices of College and Career Readiness standards. The project will develop a suite of resources including educative curricular materials, pedagogical tools, intensive teacher professional development, and video documentation of exemplary implementation and investigate the impact of the instructional resource on teacher and student learning. The full curricular resource package will be coupled with an innovative online lesson builder to foster a cycle of continuous improvement, as teachers document their adaptations to the curricular resources over time.

The project has four phases. During the design phase a team of university faculty and science education experts work with two high school biology teachers to modify existing exemplary curriculum materials and instructional supports and align them to the College and Career Readiness science standards. These newly created materials and supports are piloted by the two collaborating teachers and data from the pilot are used to refine the materials. Once the package is complete and refined it will be implemented by an additional ten high school biology teachers. Data from the implementation will allow research into how teachers use the materials to plan their lessons, how the materials are enacted in classrooms and the effects the materials have on student learning. The final phase of the project will be to disseminate the resulting curriculum package and research findings to the public.

The project leverages, aligns and amplifies the NSF-developed resources of previously successful researchers and their tools, methodologies and supports. The need for truly aligned curricula and supports will be pressing as new core standards are implemented across the nation. There is a need for re-tooling the skills and pedagogical approaches of many teachers in the face of the current reforms. The project will meet these needs and provide a substantive contribution to the emerging national vision of quality science education.

Electronic Communities for Mathematics Instruction (e-CMI)

This exploratory project builds on twelve years of successful experience with the summer program for secondary mathematics teachers at PCMI. It addresses the following two needs in the field of professional development for secondary mathematics teachers: increase content knowledge and understanding of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics; and investigate and develop alternative models to conduct content-based professional development that meets the recommendations of the MET-II report.

Award Number: 
1316246
Funding Period: 
Thu, 08/01/2013 to Fri, 07/31/2015
Full Description: 

This 2-year Exploratory project, Electronic Communities for Mathematics Instruction (eCMI), is designed and conducted by the Education Development Center (EDC) in collaboration with the Institute for Advanced Study and the Park City Mathematics Institute (PCMI). It builds on EDC's successful experience over the last twelve years with the design and implementation of the summer program for secondary mathematics teachers at PCMI. It addresses the following two needs in the field of professional development for secondary mathematics teachers: increase content knowledge and understanding of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics; and investigate and develop alternative models to conduct transformative, content-based professional development that meets the recommendations of the MET-II report. Addressing the need to find affordable, effective professional development models, particularly given the enormous task of helping teachers understand the implications of the Common Core, the project eCMI will design and conduct a research study and pilot a professional development design, centering on the following two questions: (1) How can tools, experiences, and facilitation be structured in order to build an authentic and vibrant multisite community of learners? (2) To what extent and in what ways does participation in eCMI lead to increases in secondary teachers' knowledge of mathematics, particularly the knowledge and use of mathematical habits of mind? The long-term goal is for eCMI to evolve into a common large-scale national professional development program that helps secondary teachers implement the Common Core, with special focus on the Standards for Mathematical Practice.

To create a context for investigating the two questions above, eCMI will develop and pilot a blended program using online and local mathematics facilitation in a course focused on deepening knowledge of mathematics using the Common Core as a blueprint. The project team will refine and extend the "e-table" concept, developed over the past few years at PCMI, in which teachers in different sites work together with a facilitator via sophisticated electronic conferencing technology. The mathematics course will consist of nine three-hour sessions conducted online during the academic year. Each session will integrate challenging mathematics content, carefully designed and focused on developing mathematical habits of mind through problem solving, with explicit opportunities that ask teachers to reflect on the implications of these experiences for their learning and beliefs. Teachers will be asked to spend time between sessions in deeper discussions online by sharing responses to reflective prompts and responding to each other's prompts. Sessions will be delivered to tables of five or six participants and a table leader meeting live at the same site and connected electronically to other sites. Table leaders will be teachers or university faculty experienced with the following style of delivery: serious and challenging mathematics that is driven by problem-based experience. The project team will collect information on teachers' beliefs about the nature of mathematics and their strategies for approaching mathematics.

Secondary teachers who immplement the standards for mathematical practice require extensive experiences in the practice of mathematics. Several professional development programs, including PCMI, have been able to provide such experiences but they are expensive in cost and labor. eCMI will adapt the proven PCMI design, one that uses carefully designed problem sets in which significant mathematical results emerge from reflection on numerical and geometric experiments, to blend online and face-to-face platforms in a way that has the potential to increase the reach of the program by orders of magnitude. The exploratory project, through pilot and research programs, will lay the foundation for such a scale up by working with 15-30 secondary mathematics teachers. Results of the research will inform the field about ways in which teachers can be provided with genuine mathematical experiences through the use of online media paired with local facilitation.

Developing Rich Media-Based Materials for Practice-Based Teacher Education

This research and development project is premised on the notion that recent technological developments have made it feasible to represent classroom work in new ways. In addition to watching recorded videos of classroom interactions or reading written cases, teacher educators and teachers can now watch animations and image sequences, realized with cartoon characters, and made to depict activities that happened, or could have happened, in a mathematics classroom.

Award Number: 
1316241
Funding Period: 
Thu, 08/15/2013 to Tue, 07/31/2018
Full Description: 

The 4-year research and development project, Developing Rich Media-based Materials for Practice-based Teacher Education, is premised on the notion that recent technological developments have made it feasible to represent classroom work in new ways. In addition to watching recorded videos of classroom interactions or reading written cases, teacher educators and teachers can now watch animations and image sequences, realized with cartoon characters, and made to depict activities that happened, or could have happened, in a mathematics classroom. Furthermore, teacher educators and teachers can react to such animations or image sequences by making their own depictions of alternative moves by students or teachers in classroom interaction. And all of that can take place in an on-line, cloud-based environment that also supports discussion fora, questionnaires, and the kinds of capabilities associated with learning management systems. Such technologies offer important affordances to teacher educators seeking to provide candidates with course-based experiences that emphasize the development of practice-based skills. The focus of the project is on mathematics teacher education. This joint project of the University of Maryland Center for Mathematics Education and the University of Michigan will produce 6 to 8 field-tested modules for use in different courses that are a part of mathematics teacher preparation programs. The following two-pronged research question will be resolved: What are the affordances and constraints of the modules and the environment as supports for: (1) practice based teacher education and (2) a shift toward blended teacher education?

The project involves the following activities: (1) a teacher education materials development component; (2) a related evaluation component; and (3) two research components. The development phase seeks to develop both the LessonSketch.org platform and six to eight mathematics teacher education modules for use in preservice teacher education programs from around the country. The modules will be written with practice-based teacher education goals in mind and will use the capacities of the LessonSketch.org platform as a vehicle for using rich-media artifacts of teaching with preservice teacher candidates. LessonSketch Teacher Education Research and Development Fellows will be chosen through a competitive application process. They will develop their respective modules along with teams of colleagues that will be recruited to form their inquiry group and pilot the module activities. The evaluation activity will focus on the materials development aspect of the project. Data will be collected by the LessonSketch platform, which includes interviews with Fellows and their teams, perspectives of module writers, descriptive statistics of module use, and feedback from both teacher educator and preservice teacher end-users about the quality of their experiences. The first research activity of the project is design research on the kinds of technological infrastructure that are useful for practice-based teacher education. The PIs will identify tools that teacher educators need and want beyond the current capabilities for web-based support for use of rich media and will produce prototype tools inside the LessonSketch environment to meet these needs. The second research activity of the project will supplement the evaluation activity by examining the implementation of two of the modules in detail. This aspect of the research will examine the goals of the intended curriculum, the proposed modes of media use, the fidelity of the implemented curriculum, and learnings produced by preservice teachers. This research activity will help the field understand the degree to which practice-based teacher education that is mediated by an online access to rich media would be a kind of practice that could be easily incorporated into existing teacher education structures.

The project will produce 6 to 8 LessonSketch modules for use in teacher education classes. Each module will be implemented in at least eight teacher education classes across the country, which means that between 720 and 960 preservice teacher candidates will study the materials. The project aims to shift the field toward practice-based teacher education by supporting university programs to implement classroom-driven activities that will produce mathematics teachers with strong capabilities to teach mathematics effectively and meaningfully.

Enhancing Teaching and Learning with Social Media: Supporting Teacher Professional Learning and Student Scientific Argumentation

This exploratory proposal is researching and developing professional learning activities to help high school teachers use available and emerging social media to teach scientific argumentation. The project responds to the growing emphasis on scientific argumentation in new standards.

Award Number: 
1316799
Funding Period: 
Thu, 08/01/2013 to Mon, 07/31/2017
Full Description: 

This exploratory proposal is researching and developing professional learning activities to help high school teachers use available and emerging social media to teach scientific argumentation. The project responds to the growing emphasis on scientific argumentation in new standards. Participants include a team of ninth and tenth grade Life Science teachers collaborating as co-researchers with project staff in a design study to develop one socially mediated science unit. It also produces strategies, tools and on-line materials to support teachers' development of the pedagogical, content, and technological knowledge needed to integrate emerging technologies into science instruction. This project focuses on the flexible social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram that students frequently use in their everyday lives. Research questions explore the technology of social media and the pedagogy needed to support student engagement in scientific argumentation. The Year Three pilot analyses provide data on the professional learning model. The project provides a basis for scale-up with this instructional and professional learning model to other core science content, cross-cutting themes, and STEM practices.

Secondary Science Teaching with English Language and Literacy Acquisition (SSTELLA)

This is a four-year project to develop, implement, and study an experimental model of secondary science pre-service teacher education designed to prepare novice school teachers to provide effective science instruction to English language learners (ELLs). The project incorporates the principles underlying the Next Generation Science Standards with a focus on promoting students' scientific sense-making, comprehension and communication of scientific discourse, and productive use of language.

Award Number: 
1316834
Funding Period: 
Thu, 08/01/2013 to Wed, 07/31/2019
Full Description: 

This is a four-year Discovery Research K-12 project to develop, implement, and study an experimental model of secondary science pre-service teacher education designed to prepare novice school teachers to provide effective science instruction to English language learners (ELLs). The project incorporates the principles underlying the Next Generation Science Standards with a focus on promoting students' scientific sense-making, comprehension and communication of scientific discourse, and productive use of language. It articulates theory and practice related to the teaching of science content and the development of English language and literacy, and provides teachers with models of integrated practice in video cases and curriculum units. To test the efficacy of the study, a longitudinal, mixed-methods, quasi-experimental study is conducted at four institutions: the University of California-Santa Cruz, Arizona State University, the University of Arizona, and the University of Texas at San Antonio.

The three research questions are: (1) What is the impact of the project's pre-service teacher education program on novice secondary science teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and practice from the pre-service program into the second year of teaching?; (2) What is the relationship between science method instructors' fidelity of implementation of the project's practices and novice teachers' outcomes (knowledge, beliefs, and practice)?; and (3) What is the relationship between novice teachers' implementation of project-promoted practices and their students' learning? To answer these questions, the project collects and analyzes quantitative and qualitative data on novice teachers (85 treatment group and 85 control group) over three years utilizing surveys, interviews, observations, and student assessment instruments. Teachers' beliefs and knowledge about teaching science to ELLs are measured using the project-developed Science Teaching Survey, which provides quantitative scores based on a Likert-type scale, and the science teacher interview protocol to provide qualitative data, including the contextual factors affecting implementation of project-promoted practices. Classroom observations are captured through qualitative field notes and the Classroom Observation Rubric--a systematic project-developed observation instrument that measures implementation of the practices. Student learning outcomes are measured using (a) the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey (students' proficiency at applying listening, reading, writing, and comprehension abilities); (b) the Literacy in Science Assessment (students' productive use of language in authentic science literacy tasks); (c) the Scientific Sense-Making Assessment (how students make sense of core science ideas through scientific and engineering practices); and (d) appropriate state standardized assessments. In addition, the Opportunity to Learn Survey gauges students' perceptions of implementation of literacy integration, motivation in class, and identity as readers.

Project outcomes are: (a) a research-based and field-tested model for pre-service secondary science teacher education, including resources for science methods courses instructors and pre-service teachers; and (b) valid and reliable instrumentation usable in similar research and development environments.


Project Videos

2019 STEM for All Video Showcase

Title: Preparing Science Teachers to Support English Learners

Presenter(s): Edward Lyon


Researching the Efficacy of the Science and Literacy Academy Model (Collaborative Research: Strang)

This project is studying three models of professional development (PD) to test the efficacy of a practicum for grade 3-5 in-service teachers organized in three cohorts of 25. There will be 75 teachers and their students directly impacted by the project. Additional impacts of the project are research results and professional development materials, including a PD implementation guide and instructional videos.

Award Number: 
1223021
Funding Period: 
Wed, 08/01/2012 to Sun, 07/31/2016
Full Description: 

This award is doing a research study of three models of professional development (PD) to test the efficacy of a practicum for grade 3-5 in-service teachers organized in three cohorts of 25. Model 1 is a one-week institute based on classroom discourse practices and a 2-week practicum (cohort 1). Model 2 is the one-week institute (cohort 2). Model 3 is a "business as usual" model (cohort 3) based on normal professional development provided by the school district. Cohorts 1 and 2 experience the interventions in year 1 with four follow-up sessions in each of years 2 and 3. In year 4 they receive no PD, but are being observed to see if they sustain the practices learned. Cohort 3 receives no treatment in years 1 and 2, but participates in a revised version of the institute plus practicum in year 3 with four follow up sessions in year 4. The Lawrence Hall of Science provides the professional development, and Stanford University personnel are conducting the research. The teachers come from the Oakland Unified School District. Science content is the GEMS Ocean Sciences Sequence.

There are 3 research questions;

1. In what ways do practicum-based professional development models influence science instructional practice?

2. What differences in student outcomes are associated with teachers' participation in the different PD programs?

3. Is the impact of the revised PD model different from the impact of the original model?

This is a designed-based research model. Teacher data is based on interviews on beliefs about teaching and the analysis of video tapes of their practicum and classroom performance using the Discourse in Inquiry Science Classrooms instrument. Student data is based on the GEMS unit pre- and post-tests and the California Science Test for 5th graders. Multiple analyses are being conducted using different combinations of the data from 8 scales across 4 years.

There will be 75 teachers and their students directly impacted by the project. Additional impacts of the project are research results and professional development materials, including a PD implementation guide and instructional videos. These will be presented in publications and conference presentations and be posted on linked websites at the Lawrence Hall of Science and the Center to Support Excellence in Teaching at Stanford University.

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