Disciplinary Content Knowledge

Preparing Science Teachers Through Practice-Based Teacher Education

This comprehensive volume advances a vision of teacher preparation programs focused on core practices supporting ambitious science instruction. The book advocates for collaborative learning and building a community of teacher educators that can collectively share and refine strategies, tools, and practices. 
 
Author/Presenter: 
David Stroupe
Karen Hammerness
Scott McDonald
Year: 
2020
Short Description: 

This comprehensive volume advances a vision of teacher preparation programs focused on core practices supporting ambitious science instruction. The book advocates for collaborative learning and building a community of teacher educators that can collectively share and refine strategies, tools, and practices. 

Conceptions and Consequences of Mathematical Argumentation, Justification, and Proof

Lead Organization(s): 
Year: 
2020
Short Description: 

This book aims to advance ongoing debates in the field of mathematics and mathematics education regarding conceptions of argumentation, justification, and proof and the consequences for research and practice when applying particular conceptions of each construct. Through analyses of classroom practice across grade levels using different lenses - particular conceptions of argumentation, justification, and proof - researchers consider the implications of how each conception shapes empirical outcomes. In each section, organized by grade band, authors adopt particular conceptions of argumentation, justification, and proof, and they analyse one data set from each perspective. In addition, each section includes a synthesis chapter from an expert in the field to bring to the fore potential implications, as well as new questions, raised by the analyses. Finally, a culminating section considers the use of each conception across grade bands and data sets.

Domain appropriateness and skepticism in viable argumentation

Lead Organization(s): 
Year: 
2020
Short Description: 

Several recent studies have focused on helping students understand the limitations of empirical arguments (e.g., Stylianides, G. J. & Stylianides, A. J., 2009, Brown, 2014). One view is that students use empirical argumentation because they hold empirical proof schemes—they are convinced a general claim is true by checking a few cases (Harel & Sowder, 1998). Some researchers have sought to unseat students’ empirical proof schemes by developing students’ skepticism, their uncertainty about the truth of a general claim in the face of confirming (but not exhaustive) evidence (e.g., Brown, 2014; Stylianides, G. J. & Stylianides, A. J., 2009). With sufficient skepticism, students would seek more secure, non-empirical arguments to convince themselves that a general claim is true. We take a different perspective, seeking to develop students’ awareness of domain appropriateness (DA), whether the argument type is appropriate to the domain of the claim. In particular, DA entails understanding that an empirical check of a proper subset of cases in a claim’s domain does not (i) guarantee the claim is true and does not (ii) provide an argument that is acceptable in the mathematical or classroom community, although checking all cases does both (i) and (ii). DA is distinct from skepticism; it is not concerned with students’ confidence about the truth of a general claim. We studied how ten 8th graders developed DA through classroom experiences that were part of a broader project focused on developing viable argumentation. 

Eliminating counterexamples: A case study intervention for improving adolescents’ ability to critique direct arguments

Year: 
2020
Short Description: 

Students’ difficulties with argumentation, proving, and the role of counterexamples in proving

are well documented. Students in this study experienced an intervention for improving their

argumentation and proving practices. The intervention included the eliminating counterexamples

(ECE) framework as a means of constructing and critiquing viable arguments for a general claim.

This framework involves constructing descriptions of all possible counterexamples to a conditional

claim and determining whether or not a direct argument eliminates the possibility of

counterexamples. This case study investigates U.S. eighth-grade (age 13) mathematics students’

conceptions about the validity of a direct argument after the students received instruction on the

ECE framework. We describe student activities in response to the intervention, and we identify

students’ conceptions that are inconsistent with canonical notions of mathematical proving and

appear to be barriers to using the ECE framework.

Eliminating counterexamples: An intervention for improving adolescents’ contrapositive reasoning

Lead Organization(s): 
Year: 
2020
Short Description: 

Students’ difficulties with contrapositive reasoning are well documented. Lack of intuition about

contrapositive reasoning and lack of a meta-argument for the logical equivalence between a

conditional claim and its contrapositive may contribute to students’ struggles. This case study

investigated the effectiveness of the eliminating counterexamples intervention in improving students’

ability to construct, critique, and validate contrapositive arguments in a U.S. eighth-grade

mathematics classroom. The intervention involved constructing descriptions of all possible

counterexamples to a conditional claim and its contrapositive, comparing the two descriptions,

noting that the descriptions are the same barring the order of phrases, and finding a counterexample

to show the claim is false or viably arguing that no counterexample exists.

NCTM Presentation Line of "Good" Fit in Grade 8 Classrooms

Lead Organization(s): 
Year: 
2018
Short Description: 

This presntation addreses 4 research cquestions

 

What extant criteria do Grade 8 students use to choose the better line
of fit between two lines “fit” to a set of data, when both lines express
the trend of the data?
 
Is a residual criterion accessible and useful to Grade 8 students when
learning about line of fit?
 
How does introducing a residual criterion impact student
understanding of line of fit and their understanding mathematical
modeling process?
 
What stages of learning do students express as they engage in our
lesson?
Resource(s): 

BioGraph 2.0: Online Professional Development for High School Biology Teachers for Teaching and Learning About Complex Systems

Principal Investigator: 

The purpose of this study has been to address the accessibility and efficacy of high quality professional development by modifying a successful in-person PD to be delivered on the edX platform. The PD course introduces BioGraph, a curriculum that uses computer-based simulations to teach biology concepts and complex systems ideas. The study has taken place over the last four years with teachers from across the globe, and in biology classrooms across the US and in India with teachers and students who are working with the BioGraph curriculum.

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Target Audience: 

Building a Teacher Knowledge Base for the Implementation of High-Quality Instructional Resources through the Collaborative Investigation of Video Cases (Collaborative Research: Murray and Wilson)

Principal Investigator: 

Analyzing Instruction in Mathematics using the TRU framework (AIM-TRU) is a research-practice partnership that is investigating the pressing problem of supporting teachers in increasing their capacity to implement high-quality instructional materials in the classroom with fidelity. Drawing upon the design-based research paradigm, the partnership has worked to co-design, investigate, and iteratively form the AIM-TRU Learning Cycle, which gives teachers the opportunity to understand the materials and how they are used in the classroom through a video-based professional learning cycle.

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Target Audience: 

Getting Unstuck: Designing and Evaluating Teacher Resources to Support Conceptual and Creative Fluency with Programming

Principal Investigator: 

We are studying how an online professional learning experience for K-12 computer science teachers can be adapted for use in the classroom. Our goal is to increase teachers' conceptual and creative fluency with the Scratch programming environment. In collaboration with several teachers, we further refined our online professional learning experience for summer 2020. We have also been collaboratively developing and studying educative curriculum materials that promote both teacher and student learning and development.

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Target Audience: 

Building Environmental and Educational Technology Competence and Leadership Among Educators: An Exploration in Virtual Reality Professional Development

Principal Investigator: 

This exploratory project supports the professional development of secondary STEM teachers by providing multiyear training around three specific areas: (1) environmental sciences themed content; (2) technology integration in the classroom, and (3) classroom-based action research within action research communities. Using virtual reality to focus on wetlands and their connection to flooding brings locally relevant STEM concepts in a real-world context that is relatable to minoritized teachers and students living in these areas.

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Target Audience: 

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