Technology

Principles for Designing Large-Format Refreshable Haptic Graphics Using Touchscreen Devices: An Evaluation of Nonvisual Panning Methods

Touchscreen devices, such as smartphones and tablets, represent a modern solution for providing graphical access to people with blindness and visual impairment (BVI). However, a significant problem with these solutions is their limited screen real estate, which necessitates panning or zooming operations for accessing large-format graphical materials such as maps.

Lead Organization(s): 
Year: 
2017
Short Description: 
This article describes the development of four novel non-visual panning methods designed from the onset with consideration of these perceptual and cognitive constraints.

Touchscreen-Based Haptic Information Access for Assisting Blind and Visually-Impaired Users: Perceptual Parameters and Design Guidelines

Touchscreen-based smart devices, such as smartphones and tablets, offer great promise for providing blind and visually-impaired (BVI) users with a means for accessing graphics non-visually. However, they also offer novel challenges as they were primarily developed for use as a visual interface. This paper studies key usability parameters governing accurate rendering of haptically-perceivable graphical materials.

Lead Organization(s): 
Year: 
2018
Short Description: 
This paper studies key usability parameters governing accurate rendering of haptically-perceivable graphical materials

Comparing Haptic Pattern Matching on Tablets and Phones: Large Screens Are Not Necessarily Better

Significance: Touchscreen-based, multimodal graphics represent an area of increasing research in digital access for individuals with blindness or visual impairments; yet, little empirical research on the effects of screen size on graphical exploration exists. This work probes if and whenmore screen area is necessary in supporting a patternmatching task.

Year: 
2018
Short Description: 
The current study investigates two questions: (1) Do screen size and grid density impact a user's accuracy on pattern-matching tasks? (2) Do screen size and grid density impact a user's time on task?

The Impact of Teacher Gender on Girls’ Performance on Programming Tasks in Early Elementary School

Aim/Purpose: The goal of this paper is to examine whether having female robotics teachers positively impacts girls’ performance on programming and robotics tasks.

Background: Women continue to be underrepresented in the technical STEM fields such as engineering and computer science. New programs and initiatives are needed to engage girls in STEM beginning in early childhood. The goal of this work is to explore the impact of teacher gender on young children’s mastery of programming concepts after completing an introductory robotics program.

Lead Organization(s): 
Year: 
2018
Short Description: 
The goal of this paper is to examine whether having female robotics teachers positively impacts girls’ performance on programming and robotics tasks.

Considerations for STEM Education from PreK through Grade 3

Early Learning Brief

Year: 
2018
Short Description: 
This brief draws on research supported by the National Science Foundation to highlight important considerations for educators and others who design and provide STEM educational experiences for young children.

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