Reasoning Skills

CAREER: Algebraic Knowledge for Teaching: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

The goal of this CAREER program of research is to identify, from a cross-cultural perspective, essential Algebraic Knowledge for Teaching (AKT) that will enable elementary teachers to better develop students' algebraic thinking. This study explores AKT based on integrated insights of the U.S. and Chinese expert teachers' classroom performance.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1350068
Funding Period: 
Fri, 08/15/2014 to Fri, 07/31/2020
Full Description: 

What content knowledge is needed for the teaching of mathematics? What practices are more effective for realizing student success? These questions have received considerable attention in the mathematics education community. The goal of this CAREER program of research is to identify, from a cross-cultural perspective, essential Algebraic Knowledge for Teaching (AKT) that will enable elementary teachers to better develop students' algebraic thinking. Focusing on two fundamental mathematical ideas recently emphasized by the Common Core State Standards - inverse relations and properties of operations - this study explores AKT based on integrated insights of the U.S. and Chinese expert teachers' classroom performance. It will be focused on three objectives: (1) identify AKT that facilitates algebraic thinking and develop preliminary findings into teaching materials; (2) refine research-based teaching materials based on the evaluative data; and (3) integrate research with education through course development at Temple University and teacher outreach in Philadelphia.

The model underlying this research program is that improved pedagogy will improve student learning, both directly and indirectly. A design-based research method will be used to accomplish objectives #1 and #2. Cross-cultural videotaped lessons will be first analyzed to identify AKT, focusing on teachers' use of worked examples, representations, and deep questions. This initial set of findings will then be developed into teaching materials. The U.S. and Chinese expert teachers will re-teach the lessons as part of the refinement process. Data sources will include: baseline and updated survey data (control, context, and process variables), observation, documents, videos, and interviews. The statistical techniques will include descriptive and inferential statistics and HLM will to address the hierarchical nature of the data.

This project involves students and teachers at various levels (elementary, undergraduate, and graduate) at Temple University and the School District of Philadelphia (SDP) in the U.S. and Nanjing Normal University and Nantong School District in China. A total of 600 current and future elementary teachers and many of their students will benefit directly or indirectly from this project. Project findings will be disseminated through various venues. Activities of the project will promote school district-university collaboration, a novice-expert teacher network, and cross-disciplinary and international collaboration. It is anticipated that the videos of expert teaching will also be useful future research by cognitive researchers studying ways to improve mathematics learning.

Publications
G indicates graduate student author; U indicates undergraduate student author

Journal Articles in English

  1. Ding, M., G Chen, W., & G Hassler, R. (2019). Linear quantity models in the US and Chinese elementary mathematics classrooms. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 21, 105-130 doi: 10.1080/10986065.2019.1570834 . PDF
  2. Barnett, E., & Ding, M. (2019). Teaching of the associative property: A natural classroom investigation. Investigations of Mathematics Learning, 11, 148-166. doi: 10.1080/19477503.2018.1425592  PDF
  3. Ding, M., & G Heffernan, K. (2018). Transferring specialized content knowledge to elementary classrooms: Preservice teachers’ learning to teach the associative property. International Journal of Mathematics Educational in Science and Technology, 49, 899-921.doi: 10.1080/0020739X.2018.1426793 PDF
  4. Ding, M. (2018). Modeling with tape diagrams. Teaching Children Mathematics25, 158-165. doi: 10.5951/teacchilmath.25.3.0158  PDF
  5. G Chen, W., & Ding, M.* (2018). Transitioning from mathematics textbook to classroom instruction: The case of a Chinese expert teacher. Frontiers of Education in China, 13, 601-632. doi: 10.1007/s11516-018-0031-z (*Both authors contributed equally). PDF
  6. Ding, M., & G Auxter, A. (2017). Children’s strategies to solving additive inverse problems: A preliminary analysis. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 29, 73-92. doi:10.1007/s13394-017-0188-4  PDF
  7. Ding, M. (2016).  Developing preservice elementary teachers’ specialized content knowledge for teaching fundamental mathematical ideas: The case of associative property. International Journal of STEM Education, 3(9), 1-19doi: 10.1186/s40594-016-0041-4  PDF
  8. Ding, M. (2016). Opportunities to learn: Inverse operations in U.S. and Chinese elementary mathematics textbooks. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 18, 45-68. doi: 10.1080/10986065.2016.1107819  PDF

Journal Articles in Chinese
Note: The Chinese journals Educational Research and Evaluation (Elementary Education and Instruction教育研究与评论 (小学教育教学) and Curriculum and Instructional Methods (课程教材教法) are both official, core journals in mathematics education field in China.

  1. Chen, W. (2018). Strategies to deal with mathematical representations – an analysis of expert’s classroom instruction. Curriculum and Instructional Methods. 数学教学的表征处理策略——基于专家教师的课堂教学分析. 课程教材教法. PDF
  2. Ma, F. ( 2018) – Necessary algebraic knowledge for elementary teachers- an ongoing cross-cultural study. Educational Research and Evaluation (Elementary Education and Instruction), 2, 5-7.  小学教师必备的代数学科知识-跨文化研究进行时。教育研究与评论 (小学教育教学), 2, 5-7. PDF
  3. Chen, J. (2018) Infusion and development of children’s early algebraic thinking – a comparative study of the US and Chinese elementary mathematics teaching. Educational Research and Evaluation (Elementary Education and Instruction), 2, 8-13.  儿童早期代数思维的渗透与培养-中美小学数学教学比较研究。教育研究与评论(小学教育教学),28-13.  PDF
  4. Zong, L. (2018). A comparative study on the infusion of inverse relations in the US and Chinese classroom teaching. Educational Research and Evaluation (Elementary Education and Instruction), 2, 14-19.  中美逆运算渗透教学对比研究。教育研究与评论(小学教育教学,2,14-19.  PDF
  5. Wu, X. (2018). Mathematical representations and development of children’s mathematical thinking: A perspective of US-Chinese comparison. Educational Research and Evaluation (Elementary Education and Instruction), 2, 20-24.  数学表征与儿童数学思维发展-基于中美比较视角。教育研究与评论(小学教育教学,2, 20-24.  PDF

Dissertations

  1. Hassler, R. (2016). Mathematical comprehension facilitated by situation models: Learning opportunities for inverse relations in elementary school.Published dissertation, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA. (Chair: Dr. Meixia Ding)  PDF
  2. Chen, W. (2018). Elementary mathematics teachers’ professional growth: A perspectives of TPACK (TPACK 视角下小学数学教师专业发展的研究). Dissertation, Nanjing Normal University. Nanjing, China. PDF

National Presentations
G indicates graduate student author; U indicates undergraduate student author

  • Ding, M (symposium organizer, 2019, April). Enhancing elementary mathematics instruction: A U.S.-China collaboration. Papers presented at NCTM research conference (Discussant: Jinfa Cai). (The following three action research papers were written by my NSF project teachers under my guidance).
      • Milewski Moskal, M., & Varano, A. (2019). The teaching of worked examples: Chinese approaches in U.S. classrooms. Paper 
      • Larese, T., Milewski Moskal, M., Ottinger, M., & Varano, A., (2019). Introducing Investigations math games in China: Successes and surprises. Paper
      • Murray, D., Seidman, J., Blackmon, E., Maimon, G., & Domsky, A. (2019). Mathematic instruction across two cultures: A teacher perspective. Paper
    • Ding, M., & Ying Y. (2018, June). CAREER: Algebraic knowledge for teaching: A cross-cultural perspective. Poster presentation at the National Science Foundation (NSF) PI meeting, Washington, DC.  Poster
    • Ding, M., Brynes, J., G Barnett, E., & Hassler, R. (2018, April). When classroom instruction predicts students’ learning of early algebra: A cross-cultural opportunity-propensity analysis. Paper presented at 2018 AERA conference. New York, NY.  Paper
    • Ding, M., Li, X., Manfredonia, M., & Luo, W. (2018, April). Video as a tool to support teacher learning: A Cross-cultural analysis. Paper presented at 2018 NCTM conference. Washington, DC.  PPT
    • GBarnett, E., & Ding, M. (2018, April). Teaching the basic properties of arithmetic: A natural classroom investigation of associativity. Poster presentation at 2018AERA conference, New York, NY.  Poster
    • Hassler, R., & Ding, M. (2018, April). The role of deep questions in promoting elementary students’ mathematical comprehension. Poster presentation at 2018AERA conference, New York, NY.
    • Ding, M., G Chen, W., G Hassler, R., Li, X., & G Barnett, E. (April, 2017). Comparisons in the US and Chinese elementary mathematics classrooms. Poster presentation at AERA 2017 conference (In the session of “Advancing Mathematics Education Through NSF’s DRK-12 Program”). San Antonio, TX. Poster
    • Ding, M., Li, X., G Hassler, R., & G Barnett, E. (April, 2017). Understanding the basic properties of operations in US and Chinese elementary School. Paper presented at AERA 2017 conference. San Antonio, TX.  Paper
    • Ding, M., G Chen, W., & G Hassler, R. (April, 2017). Tape diagrams in the US and Chinese elementary mathematics classrooms. Paper presented at NCTM 2017 conference. San Antonio, TX.  Paper
    • Ding, M., & G Hassler, R. (2016, June). CAREER: Algebraic knowledge for teaching in elementary school: A cross-cultural perspective. Poster presentation at the NSF PI meeting, Washington, DC. Poster
    • Ding, M. (symposium organizer, 2016, April). Early algebraic in elementary school: A cross-cultural perspective. Proposals presented at 2016 AERA conference, Washington, DC.
        • Ding, M. (2016, April). A comparative analysis of inverse operations in U.S. and Chinese elementary mathematics textbooks. Paper 
        • G Hassler, R. (2016, April). Elementary Textbooks to Classroom Teaching: A Situation Model Perspective. Paper
        • G Chen, W., & Ding, M. (2016, April). Transitioning textbooks into classroom teaching: An action research on Chinese elementary mathematics lessons. Paper
        • Li, X., G Hassler, R., & Ding, M. (2016, April). Elementary students’ understanding of inverse relations in the U.S. and China.  Paper
        • Stull, J., Ding, M., G Hassler, R., Li, X., & U George, C. (2016, April). The impact of algebraic knowledge for teaching on student learning: A Preliminary analysis. Paper
      • Ding, M., G Hassler, R., Li., X., & G Chen, W. (2016, April). Algebraic knowledge for teaching: An analysis of US experts' lessons on inverse relations. Paper presented at 2016 NCTM conference, San Francisco, CA. Paper
      • G Hassler. R., & Ding, M. (2016, April). Situation model perspective on mathematics classroom teaching: A case study on inverse relations. Paper presented at 2016 NCTM conference, San Francisco, CA.  Paper
      • Ding, M., & G Copeland, K. (2015, April). Transforming specialized content knowledge: Preservice elementary teachers’ learning to teach the associative property of multiplication. Paper presented at AERA 2015 conference, Chicago, IL. Paper PPT
      • Ding, M., & G Auxter, A. (2015, April). Children’s strategies to solving additive inverse problems: A preliminary analysis. Paper presented at AERA 2015 conference, Chicago, IL.  Paper

      Learning about Ecosystems Science and Complex Causality through Experimentation in a Virtual World

      This project will develop a modified virtual world and accompanying curriculum for middle school students to help them learn to more deeply understand ecosystems patterns and the strengths and limitations of experimentation in ecosystems science. The project will build upon a computer world called EcoMUVE, a Multi-User Virtual Environment or MUVE, and will develop ways for students to conduct experiments within the virtual world and to see the results of those experiments.

      Project Email: 
      Lead Organization(s): 
      Award Number: 
      1416781
      Funding Period: 
      Mon, 09/01/2014 to Thu, 08/31/2017
      Full Description: 

      EcoXPT from videohall.com on Vimeo.

      Comprehending how ecosystems function is important knowledge for citizens in making decisions and for students who aspire to become scientists. This understanding requires deep thinking about complex causality, unintended side-effects, and the strengths and limitations of experimental science. These are difficult concepts to learn due to the many interacting components and non-linear interrelationships involved. Ecosystems dynamics is particularly difficult to teach in classrooms because ecosystems involve complexities such as phenomena distributed widely across space that change over long time frames. Learning when and how experimental science can provide useful information in understanding ecosystems dynamics requires moving beyond the limited affordances of classrooms. The project will: 1) advance understanding of experimentation in ecosystems as it can be applied to education; 2) show how student learning is affected by having opportunities to experiment in the virtual world that simulate what scientists do in the real world and with models; and 3) produce results comparing this form of teaching to earlier instructional approaches. This project will result in a learning environment that will support learning about the complexities of the earth's ecosystem.

      The project will build upon a computer world called EcoMUVE, a Multi-User Virtual Environment or MUVE, developed as part of an earlier NSF-funded project. A MUVE is a simulated world in which students can virtually walk around, make observations, talk to others, and collect data. EcoMUVE simulates a pond and a forest ecosystem. It offers an immersive context that makes it possible to teach about ecosystems in the classroom, allowing exploration of the complexities of large scale problems, extended time frames and and multiple causality. To more fully understand how ecosystems work, students need the opportunity to experiment and to observe what happens. This project will advance this earlier work by developing ways for students to conduct experiments within the virtual world and to see the results of those experiments. The project will work with ecosystem scientists to study the types of experiments that they conduct, informing knowledge in education about how ecosystem scientists think, and will build opportunities for students that mirror what scientists do. The project will develop a modified virtual world and accompanying curriculum for middle school students to help them learn to more deeply understand ecosystems patterns and the strengths and limitations of experimentation in ecosystems science. The resulting program will be tested against existing practice, the EcoMUVE program alone, and other programs that teach aspects of ecosystems dynamics to help teachers know how to best use these curricula in the classroom.

      Teacher Professional Development for Technology-enhanced Inquiry to Foster Students' 21st Century Learning

      This project will develop and evaluate a module for use in a 7th grade classroom that promotes student development of 21st Century skills with a particular focus on student development of scientific reasoning. The technology-enhanced curriculum will be designed to engage learners in deep and meaningful investigations to promote student learning of content in parallel with 21st century skills.

      Lead Organization(s): 
      Partner Organization(s): 
      Award Number: 
      1417983
      Funding Period: 
      Mon, 09/01/2014 to Fri, 08/31/2018
      Full Description: 

      The goal of this Exploratory Design and Development Teaching project is to develop and evaluate a module for use in a 7th grade classroom that promotes student development of 21st Century skills with a particular focus on student development of scientific reasoning. The technology-enhanced curriculum will be designed to engage learners in deep and meaningful investigations to promote student learning of content in parallel with 21st century skills. The module will be designed using principles of inquiry-based learning as well as the principles of universal design for learning (UDL). The motivation behind this project is that it will directly contribute to the limited research on the interventions that impact teachers' capacity to provide high quality 21st century STEM education to all students, with a specific focus on underrepresented minorities and those with disabilities. The classroom setting for which the curriculum will be delivered is within an urban district which includes a large number of minority students and over 20% students with specific learning disabilities. The project will catalyze students' deep understanding of content knowledge while developing 21st century skills in parallel; hence better preparing students for sustainable learning experiences into high school and beyond.

      A study will be conducted to determine the effectiveness of the learning modules on classroom practices as well as student learning. A mixed methods design involving multiple measures will provide insights into changes in teachers' content knowledge, teaching practices that include a focus on 21st century learning, and fidelity of use of the TI21 framework for implementation of the learning activities. Pre- and post-testing of students using a scientific reasoning assessment and surveys on attitudes towards STEM, along with validated and widely used concept inventories, will provide further measures. As part of this exploratory project, the design and validity of instruments for use with the targeted population, which includes students with specific learning disabilities, will be further tested. This will include administering some of the assessments through web-based apps to meet the needs of these students. The learning modules, with embedded assessments and web-based apps, will provide an innovative approach in which transferable 21st century skills can be developed and measured. Outcomes of this project will be disseminated throughout the urban school system and therefore have the ability to impact thousands of other students (mostly minorities and many with disabilities) and their science, math, and technology teachers. Project outcomes will also inform the development of future science and/or modules for use in similar urban classroom settings.

      Supporting Secondary Students in Building External Models (Collaborative Research: Damelin)

      This project will (1) develop and test a modeling tool and accompanying instructional materials, (2) explore how to support students in building and using models to explain and predict phenomena across a range of disciplines, and (3) document the sophistication of understanding of disciplinary core ideas that students develop when building and using models in grades 6-12. 

      Lead Organization(s): 
      Award Number: 
      1417809
      Funding Period: 
      Fri, 08/01/2014 to Tue, 07/31/2018
      Full Description: 

      The Concord Consortium and Michigan State University will collaborate to: (1) develop and test a modeling tool and accompanying instructional materials, (2) explore how to support students in building and using models to explain and predict phenomena across a range of disciplines, and (3) document the sophistication of understanding of disciplinary core ideas that students develop when building and using models in grades 6-12. By iteratively designing, developing and testing a modeling tool and instructional materials that facilitate the building of dynamic models, the project will result in exemplary middle and high school materials that use a model-based approach as well as an understanding of the potential of this approach in supporting student development of explanatory frameworks and modeling capabilities. A key goal of the project is to increase students' learning of science through modeling and to study student engagement with modeling as a scientific practice. 

      The project provides the nation with middle and high school resources that support students in developing and using models to explain and predict phenomena, a central scientific and engineering practice. Because the research and development work will be carried out in schools in which students typically do not succeed in science, the products will also help produce a population of citizens capable of continuing further STEM learning and who can participate knowledgeably in public decision making. The goals of the project are to (1) develop and test a modeling tool and accompanying instructional materials, (2) explore how to support students in building, using, and revising models to explain and predict phenomena across a range of disciplines, and (3) document the sophistication of understanding of disciplinary core ideas that students develop when building and using models in grades 6-12. Using a design-based research methodology, the research and development efforts will involve multiple cycles of designing, developing, testing, and refining the systems modeling tool and the instructional materials to help students meet important learning goals related to constructing dynamic models that align with the Next Generation Science Standards. The learning research will study the effect of working with external models on student construction of robust explanatory conceptual understanding. Additionally, it will develop a set of professional development resources and teacher scaffolds to help the expanding community of teachers not directly involved in the project take advantage of the materials and strategies for maximizing the impact of the curricular materials.

      Re-Imagining Video-based Online Learning

      Despite the tremendous growth in the availability of mathematics videos online, little research has investigated student learning from them. The goal of this exploratory project is to create, investigate, and provide evidence of promise for a model of online videos that embodies a more expansive vision of both the nature of the content and the pedagogical approach than is currently represented in YouTube-style lessons.

      Award Number: 
      1416789
      Funding Period: 
      Mon, 09/01/2014 to Fri, 08/31/2018
      Full Description: 

      The goal of this exploratory project is to create, investigate, and provide evidence of promise for a model of online videos that embodies a more expansive vision of both the nature of the content and the pedagogical approach than is currently represented in YouTube-style lessons. This goal is pursued through the development and research of videos for two mathematics units--one focused on proportional reasoning at the middle grades level and the other focused on quadratic functions at the high school level, using an approach that could be applied to any STEM content area. The media attention on the Khan Academy and the wide array of massive open online courses has highlighted the internet phenomenon of widespread accessibility to mathematics lessons, which offer many benefits, such as student control of the pace of learning and earlier access to advanced topics than is often possible in public schools. Yet, despite the huge range of topics presented in online videos, there is surprising uniformity in the procedural emphasis of the content and in the expository mode of presentation. Moving beyond the types of videos now used, primarily recorded lectures that replicate traditional classroom experience, this project advances our understanding about how students learn from video and from watching others learn - vicarious learning - as opposed to watching an expert. This project addresses the need for an alternative approach. Rather than relying on an expository style, the videos produced for this project focus on pairs of students, highlighting their dialogue, explanations and alternative conceptions. This alternative has the potential to contribute to learning sciences and to develop a usable tool.

      Despite the tremendous growth in the availability of mathematics videos online, little research has investigated student learning from them. This project develops dialogue-intensive videos in which children justify and explain their reasoning, elucidate their own comprehension of mathematical situations, and argue for and against various ideas and strategies. According to Wegerif (2007), such vicarious participation in a dialogic community may help learners take the perspective of another in a discussion, thus "expanding the spaces of learning" through digital technology. Consequently, a major contribution of this proposed work will be a set of four vicarious learning studies. Two qualitative studies investigate the particular meanings and ways of reasoning that learners appropriate from observing the dialogue of the students in the videos, as well as the learning trajectories of vicarious learners for each unit. Two quantitative studies isolate and test the effectiveness of the dialogic and the conceptual components of the model by comparing learning outcome gains for (a) conceptual dialogic versus conceptual expository conditions, and (b) dialogic conceptual versus dialogic procedural conditions. Another mark of the originality of the proposed work is the set of vicarious learning studies that contributes to the emerging literature across several dimensions, by (a) using secondary students rather than undergraduates; (b) exploring longer periods of learning, which is more conducive to deeper understanding; and (c) examining the nature of reasoning that is possible, not just the effectiveness of the approach.

      Investigating How to Enhance Scientific Argumentation through Automated Feedback in the Context of Two High School Earth Science Curriculum Units

      This project responds to the need for technology-enhanced assessments that promote the critical practice of scientific argumentation--making and explaining a claim from evidence about a scientific question and critically evaluating sources of uncertainty in the claim. It will investigate how to enhance this practice through automated scoring and immediate feedback in the context of two high school curriculum units--climate change and fresh-water availability--in schools with diverse student populations. 

      Lead Organization(s): 
      Award Number: 
      1418019
      Funding Period: 
      Mon, 09/01/2014 to Fri, 08/31/2018
      Full Description: 

      With the current emphasis on learning science by actively engaging in the practices of science, and the call for integration of instruction and assessment; new resources, models, and technologies are being developed to improve K-12 science learning. Student assessment has become a nationwide educational priority due, in part, to the need for relevant and timely data that inform teachers, administrators, researchers, and the public about how all students perform and think while learning science. This project responds to the need for technology-enhanced assessments that promote the critical practice of scientific argumentation--making and explaining a claim from evidence about a scientific question and critically evaluating sources of uncertainty in the claim. It will investigate how to enhance this practice through automated scoring and immediate feedback in the context of two high school curriculum units--climate change and fresh-water availability--in schools with diverse student populations. The project will apply advanced automated scoring tools to students' written scientific arguments, provide individual students with customized feedback, and teachers with class-level information to assist them with improving scientific argumentation. The key outcome of this effort will be a technology-supported assessment model of how to advance the understanding of argumentation, and the use of multi-level feedback as a component of effective teaching and learning. The project will strengthen the program's current set of funded activities on assessment, focusing these efforts on students' argumentation as a complex science practice.

      This design and development research targets high school students (n=1,940) and teachers (n=22) in up to 10 states over four years. The research questions are: (1) To what extent can automated scoring tools, such as c-rater and c-rater-ML, diagnose students' explanations and uncertainty articulations as compared to human diagnosis?; (2) How should feedback be designed and delivered to help students improve scientific argumentation?; (3) How do teachers use and interact with class-level automated scores and feedback to support students' scientific argumentation with real-data and models?; and (4) How do students perceive their overall experience with the automated scores and immediate feedback when learning core ideas in climate change and fresh-water availability topics through scientific argumentation enhanced with modeling? In Years 1 and 2, plans are to conduct feasibility studies to build automated scoring models and design feedback for previously tested assessments for the two curriculum units. In Year 3, the project will implement design studies in order to identify effective feedback through random assignment. In Year 4, a pilot study will investigate if effective feedback should be offered with or without scores. The project will employ a mixed-methods approach. Data-gathering strategies will include classroom observations; screencast and log data of teachers' and students' interaction with automated feedback; teachers' and students' surveys with selected- and open-ended questions; and in-depth interviews with teachers and students. All constructed-response explanations and uncertainty items will be scored using automated scoring engines with fine-grained rubrics. Data analysis strategies will include multiple criteria to evaluate the quality of automated scores; descriptive statistical abalyses; analysis of variance to investigate differences in outcomes from the designed studies' pre/posttests and embedded assessments; analysis of covariance to investigate student learning trajectories; two-level hierarchical linear modeling to study the clustering of students within a class; and analysis of screencasts and log data.

      GRIDS: Graphing Research on Inquiry with Data in Science

      The Graphing Research on Inquiry with Data in Science (GRIDS) project will investigate strategies to improve middle school students' science learning by focusing on student ability to interpret and use graphs. GRIDS will undertake a comprehensive program to address the need for improved graph comprehension. The project will create, study, and disseminate technology-based assessments, technologies that aid graph interpretation, instructional designs, professional development, and learning materials.

      Award Number: 
      1418423
      Funding Period: 
      Mon, 09/01/2014 to Sat, 08/31/2019
      Full Description: 

      The Graphing Research on Inquiry with Data in Science (GRIDS) project is a four-year full design and development proposal, addressing the learning strand, submitted to the DR K-12 program at the NSF. GRIDS will investigate strategies to improve middle school students' science learning by focusing on student ability to interpret and use graphs. In middle school math, students typically graph only linear functions and rarely encounter features used in science, such as units, scientific notation, non-integer values, noise, cycles, and exponentials. Science teachers rarely teach about the graph features needed in science, so students are left to learn science without recourse to what is inarguably a key tool in learning and doing science. GRIDS will undertake a comprehensive program to address the need for improved graph comprehension. The project will create, study, and disseminate technology-based assessments, technologies that aid graph interpretation, instructional designs, professional development, and learning materials.

      GRIDS will start by developing the GRIDS Graphing Inventory (GGI), an online, research-based measure of graphing skills that are relevant to middle school science. The project will address gaps revealed by the GGI by designing instructional activities that feature powerful digital technologies including automated guidance based on analysis of student generated graphs and student writing about graphs. These materials will be tested in classroom comparison studies using the GGI to assess both annual and longitudinal progress. Approximately 30 teachers selected from 10 public middle schools will participate in the project, along with approximately 4,000 students in their classrooms. A series of design studies will be conducted to create and test ten units of study and associated assessments, and a minimum of 30 comparison studies will be conducted to optimize instructional strategies. The comparison studies will include a minimum of 5 experiments per term, each with 6 teachers and their 600-800 students. The project will develop supports for teachers to guide students to use graphs and science knowledge to deepen understanding, and to develop agency and identity as science learners.

      Focus on Energy: Preparing Elementary Teachers to Meet the NGSS Challenge (Collaborative Research: Seeley)

      This project will develop and investigate the opportunities and limitations of Focus on Energy, a professional development (PD) system for elementary teachers (grades 3-5). The PD will contain: resources that will help teachers to interpret, evaluate and cultivate students' ideas about energy; classroom activities to help them to identify, track and represent energy forms and flows; and supports to help them in engaging students in these activities.

      Lead Organization(s): 
      Partner Organization(s): 
      Award Number: 
      1418211
      Funding Period: 
      Mon, 09/01/2014 to Fri, 08/31/2018
      Full Description: 

      The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) identify an ambitious progression for learning energy, beginning in elementary school. To help the nation's teachers address this challenge, this project will develop and investigate the opportunities and limitations of Focus on Energy, a professional development (PD) system for elementary teachers (grades 3-5). The PD will contain: resources that will help teachers to interpret, evaluate and cultivate students' ideas about energy; classroom activities to help them to identify, track and represent energy forms and flows; and supports to help them in engaging students in these activities. Teachers will receive the science and pedagogical content knowledge they need to teach about energy in a crosscutting way across all their science curricula; students will be intellectually engaged in the practice of developing, testing, and revising a model of energy they can use to describe phenomena both in school and in their everyday lives; and formative assessment will guide the moment-by-moment advancement of students' ideas about energy.

      This project will develop and test a scalable model of PD that will enhance the ability of in-service early elementary teachers to help students learn energy concepts by coordinating formative assessment, face-to-face and web-based PD activities. Researchers will develop and iteratively refine tools to assess both teacher and student energy reasoning strategies. The goals of the project include (1) teachers' increased facility with, and disciplined application of, representations and energy reasoning to make sense of everyday phenomena in terms of energy; (2) teachers' increased ability to interpret student representations and ideas about energy to make instructional decisions; and (3) students' improved use of representations and energy reasoning to develop and refine models that describe energy forms and flows associated with everyday phenomena. The web-based product will contain: a set of formative assessments to help teachers to interpret student ideas about energy based on the Facets model; a series of classroom tested activities to introduce the Energy Tracking Lens (method to explore energy concept using multiple representations); and videos of classroom exemplars as well as scientists thinking out loud while using the Energy Tracking Lens. The project will refine the existing PD and build a system that supports online implementation by constructing a facilitator's guide so that the online community can run with one facilitator.

      Focus on Energy: Preparing Elementary Teachers to Meet the NGSS Challenge (Collaborative Research: Lacy)

      This project will develop and investigate the opportunities and limitations of Focus on Energy, a professional development (PD) system for elementary teachers (grades 3-5). The PD will contain: resources that will help teachers to interpret, evaluate and cultivate students' ideas about energy; classroom activities to help them to identify, track and represent energy forms and flows; and supports to help them in engaging students in these activities.

      Project Email: 
      Lead Organization(s): 
      Award Number: 
      1418052
      Funding Period: 
      Mon, 09/01/2014 to Mon, 08/31/2020
      Project Evaluator: 
      Bill Nave
      Full Description: 

      The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) identify an ambitious progression for learning energy, beginning in elementary school. To help the nation's teachers address this challenge, this project will develop and investigate the opportunities and limitations of Focus on Energy, a professional development (PD) system for elementary teachers (grades 3-5). The PD will contain: resources that will help teachers to interpret, evaluate and cultivate students' ideas about energy; classroom activities to help them to identify, track and represent energy forms and flows; and supports to help them in engaging students in these activities. Teachers will receive the science and pedagogical content knowledge they need to teach about energy in a crosscutting way across all their science curricula; students will be intellectually engaged in the practice of developing, testing, and revising a model of energy they can use to describe phenomena both in school and in their everyday lives; and formative assessment will guide the moment-by-moment advancement of students' ideas about energy.

      This project will develop and test a scalable model of PD that will enhance the ability of in-service early elementary teachers to help students learn energy concepts by coordinating formative assessment, face-to-face and web-based PD activities. Researchers will develop and iteratively refine tools to assess both teacher and student energy reasoning strategies. The goals of the project include (1) teachers' increased facility with, and disciplined application of, representations and energy reasoning to make sense of everyday phenomena in terms of energy; (2) teachers' increased ability to interpret student  ideas about energy to make instructional decisions; and (3) students' improved use of representations and energy reasoning to develop and refine models that describe energy forms and flows associated with everyday phenomena. The web-based product will contain: a set of formative assessments to help teachers to interpret student ideas about energy based on the Facets model; a series of classroom tested activities to introduce the Energy Tracking Lens (method to explore energy concept using multiple representations); and videos of classroom exemplars as well as scientists thinking out loud while using the Energy Tracking Lens. The project will refine the existing PD and build a system that supports online implementation by constructing a facilitator's guide so that the online community can run with one facilitator.

      Empowering Teachers through VideoReview

      This project  will develop a video recording and analysis system called VideoReView (VRV) that allows grade four science teachers to record, tag, and analyze video in their classroom in real time. The investigators will then study and enhance the system in the context of professional learning communities of teachers. 

      Lead Organization(s): 
      Partner Organization(s): 
      Award Number: 
      1415898
      Funding Period: 
      Mon, 09/01/2014 to Fri, 08/31/2018
      Full Description: 

      This project represents a collaboration between TERC and IntuVision to develop a video recording and analysis system called VideoReView (VRV) that allows grade four science teachers to record, tag, and analyze video in their classroom in real time. The system will contain a number of features---such as a sophisticated system of tagging and the automatic detection of important video segments---designed to speed and assist the teacher in its use. The investigators will then study and enhance the system in the context of professional learning communities of teachers. The system is expected to enable teachers to examine their own teaching, and that of others, in a much more dynamic and specific way and to integrate video into their ongoing structures of professional learning. To date, video analysis of teaching is out of the reach of ordinary teachers. If successful, this research could change the way teachers engage in their own profession and their understanding of, for example, student thinking and argumentation in science---something emphasized in the Next Generation Science Standards---but previously more difficult to do without being able to replay and refine teaching episodes.

      The complete VRV System will be tested with 18 Grade four teachers and approximately 400 students from six schools in the Newton Public School System in a Boston suburb. The emphasis of the study will be on the ability of teachers to use the system with little outside assistance, means of enhancing its features and usability, and its integration into professional learning communities. A mixed methods research design will be used that includes surveys and interviews. The study outcomes will be disseminated through publications and conference presentations.

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