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Special Education

CAREER: Fraction Activities and Assessments for Conceptual Teaching (FAACT) for Students with Learning Disabilities

The goal of this project is to study and support the development of conceptual understanding of fractions by students with learning disabilities (LD). The researcher proposes that rather than focusing on whether LD students can or cannot develop conceptual understanding of fractions, research should attempt to uncover the understanding LD students have and examine how growth of conceptual knowledge occurs in these students.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1253254
Funding Period: 
Tue, 07/01/2014 - Tue, 06/30/2020
Project Evaluator: 
Dr. Mary Little
Full Description: 

The goal of this project is to study and support the development of conceptual understanding of fractions by students with learning disabilities (LD). The researcher proposes that rather than focusing on whether LD students can or cannot develop conceptual understanding of fractions, research should attempt to uncover the understanding LD students have and examine how growth of conceptual knowledge occurs in these students. This approach suggests a reconceptualization of research and instructional practice in mathematics that focus on the conceptual knowledge students with LD can in fact develop.

Through a series of teaching experiments that involve cycles of theorizing, design, implementation, and refinement, the project develops instructional trajectories for LD students in the area of fractions. The research question addressed are: What initial and developing key developmental understandings of fractions do students with learning disabilities evidence through employed strategies, language, and representations? How do students with learning disabilities progress in developing and solidifying conceptual understandings of fractions through their mathematical activity? And, to what extent does an intervention reflective of a research based instructional trajectory facilitate strategic development and increased fraction conceptual knowledge in students with learning disabilities?

The main outcomes of the project include (a) a research-based instructional trajectory for students with LD specific to conceptual understandings of fractions as numeric quantities, (b) a set of 90 fraction tasks to be used for instruction and/or formative assessment in fraction concepts, (c) scoring/coding frameworks and checklists for use with key tasks as formative assessments, (d) decision-making frameworks, task sequencing guides, and suggestions to aid teachers in designing individualized, student-centered instruction, all available via the Internet. Most important, the project has the potential to offer a transformative approach to mathematics instruction for students with LD, bringing together expertise on learning disabilities and mathematics education to address a area in which there is very little research.

The PI will incorporate finding from the study into methods courses for both mathematics education and special education students. She will also develop a graduate course entitled Diagnosis and Remediation.

CAREER: Fraction Activities and Assessments for Conceptual Teaching (FAACT) for Students with Learning Disabilities

Response to Intervention in Mathematics: Beginning Substantive Collaboration between Mathematics Education and Special Education

This project is organizing and hosting a working conference on Response to Intervention (RtI) and related strategies in teaching and assessment in Mathematics. Goals of this work are: To build a community of researchers and practitioners to identify, expand and sustain research needs in this area; to identify and improve the research available related to teaching mathematics within an RtI model; and to develop resources to support teacher's understanding and application of RtI strategies.

Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1005328
Funding Period: 
Wed, 09/01/2010 - Wed, 02/29/2012
Full Description: 

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in collaboration with the Council on Exceptional Children (CEC) is organizing and hosting a focused working conference on Response to Intervention (RtI) and related strategies in teaching and assessment in Mathematics. The ultimate goals of this work are: To build a core community of researchers and practitioners from mathematics education and special education to identify, expand and sustain the research needs in this critical area; to identify and improve the research available related to teaching mathematics within a Response to Intervention model; and to develop professional development resources to support teachers's (pre-service and in-service) understanding and application of research-based RtI strategies in mathematics.

Expected outcomes include: a preliminary analysis of needed research studies; a synthesis of both mathematics education research and special education research around a key question of interest; and examples of content for inclusion in professional development and pre-service teacher education. Results will be disseminated through NCTM and CEC print, web, and conference facilities.

Response to Intervention in Mathematics: Beginning Substantive Collaboration between Mathematics Education and Special Education

Differentiated Professional Development: Building Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching Struggling Learners

This project is creating and studying a blended professional development model (face-to-face and online) for mathematics teachers and special educators (grades 4-7) with an emphasis on teaching struggling math students in the areas of fractions, decimals, and positive/negative numbers (Common Core State Standards). The model's innovative design differentiates professional learning to address teachers' wide range of prior knowledge, experiences, and interests.

Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1020163
Funding Period: 
Wed, 09/01/2010 - Wed, 08/31/2011
Project Evaluator: 
Teresa Duncan
Full Description: 

This project under the direction of the Education Development Center is creating and studying a  professional development model for middle school mathematics teachers with an emphasis on teaching struggling math students in the areas of fractions and rational numbers. There are three components to the PD for teachers: online modules, professional learning communities, and face-to-face workshops. There are four online modules 1) Fraction sense: concepts, addition, and subtraction, 2) Fraction multiplication and division; 3) Decimal and percent operations; and 4) Positive/Negative including concepts and operations. Each module is one week long. There are common sessions and special emphasis ones depending on the needs of the teacher. The project addresses three research questions: 1) To what extent do participating teachers show changes in their knowledge of rational numbers and integers, pedagogical knowledge of and beliefs about instructional practices for struggling students and abilities to use diagnostic approaches to identify and address student difficulties?; 2) To what extent do students of participating teachers increase their mathematical understanding and skill?; and 3) To what extent do students of participating teachers show positive changes in their attitudes toward learning mathematics?

In the first year of work on the professional development program, fifty-five teachers will test the initial components of the differentiated modules. In years two and three an additional 160 teachers will participate in the professional development and research to test efficacy of the professional development model. In addition to this testing, twelve teachers will be selected for intensive case studies. Teacher content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and attitudes will be assessed by various well-validated instruments, and changes in their classroom practice will be assessed by classroom observations. Effects of the teacher professional development on student learning will be evaluated by analysis of data from state assessments and by performance on selected items from NAEP and other standardized tests.

This project will result in a tested innovative model for professional development of mathematics teachers to help them with the critical challenge of assisting students who struggle in learning the core concepts and skills of rational numbers and integers. Deliverables will include the on-line modules, materials for workshop and professional learning community work, new research instruments, and research reports.

Differentiated Professional Development: Building Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching Struggling Learners

International Workshop on Mathematics and Science Education: Common Priorities that Promote Collaborative Research

The goal of this workshop is to advance the construction of new knowledge through international cooperation with Chinese counterparts in the teaching and learning of math and science at the elementary level in four areas: curriculum design and assessment; teacher preparation and professional development; effective use of the former; and reaching gifted and underserved populations. Approximately 120 people will attend, including 50 senior U.S. researchers, 25 early career researchers, 15 graduate students and 5 undergraduates.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
0751664
Funding Period: 
Sat, 03/15/2008 - Mon, 02/28/2011
International Workshop on Mathematics and Science Education: Common Priorities that Promote Collaborative Research

Nurturing Multiplicative Reasoning in Students with Learning Disabilities in a Computerized Conceptual-modeling Environment (NMRSD-CCME)

The purpose of this project is to create a research-based model of how students with learning disabilities (LDs) develop multiplicative reasoning via reform-oriented pedagogy; convert the model into a computer system that dynamically models every students’ evolving conceptions and recommends tasks to promote their advancement to higher level, standard-based multiplicative structures and operations; and study how this tool impacts student outcomes.

Project Email: 
yxin@purdue.edu
Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
0822296
Funding Period: 
Fri, 08/01/2008 - Wed, 07/31/2013
Project Evaluator: 
Dr. C. Brown
Nurturing Multiplicative Reasoning in Students with Learning Disabilities in a Computerized Conceptual-modeling Environment (NMRSD-CCME)

A Digital Resource for Developing Mathematics Teachers' TPCK

This project aims to advance the preparation of preservice teachers in middle school mathematics, specifically on the topic of proportionality, a centrally important and difficult topic in middle school mathematics that is essential to students’ later success in algebra. To address the need for a workforce of high-quality teachers to teach this mathematics, the project is developing a digital text that could be widely used to communicate the unique transitional nature of middle school mathematics.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
0918339
Funding Period: 
Tue, 09/01/2009 - Fri, 08/31/2012
Project Evaluator: 
Mark St. John, Inverness
A Digital Resource for Developing Mathematics Teachers' TPCK

Assessing the Educational, Career, and Social Impacts of the XO Laptop Program in Birmingham, AL City Schools

The mayor of Birmingham is making a two year loan of XO laptops to middle school students in the Birmingham City Schools in Alabama. The educational and social changes that will occur in classrooms and the effects on several student outcomes are studied in this Small Grant for Exploratory Research. It is expected that access to technology will change the educational and social environment in classrooms and affect student outcomes.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
0819063
Funding Period: 
Tue, 04/15/2008 - Thu, 09/30/2010
Assessing the Educational, Career, and Social Impacts of the XO Laptop Program in Birmingham, AL City Schools

An Architecture of Intensification: Building a Comprehensive Program for Struggling Students in Double-Period Algebra Classes

This project is carrying out a research and development initiative to increase the success rates of our most at-risk high school students—ninth-grade students enrolled in algebra classes but significantly underprepared for high school mathematics. It will also result in new understandings about effective approaches for teaching mathematics to struggling students and about effective ways for implementing these approaches at scale, particularly in urban school districts.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
0918434
Funding Period: 
Tue, 09/01/2009 - Thu, 03/01/2012
Project Evaluator: 
Inverness Research Inc.
Full Description: 

Intensified Algebra I, a comprehensive program used in an extended-time algebra class, helps students who are one to two years behind in mathematics become successful in algebra. It is a research and development initiative of the Charles A. Dana Center at The University of Texas at Austin, the Learning Sciences Research Institute at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and Agile Mind, that transforms the teaching of algebra to students who struggle in mathematics. Central to the program is the idea that struggling students need a powerful combination of a challenging curriculum, cohesive, targeted supports, and additional well-structured classroom time. Intensified Algebra I seeks to addresses the need for a robust Algebra I curriculum with embedded, efficient review and repair of foundational mathematical skills and concepts. It aims to address multiple dimensions of learning mathematics, including social, affective, linguistic, and cognitive. Intensified Algebra I uses an asset-based approach that builds on students’ strengths and helps students to develop academic skills and identities by engaging them in the learning experience. The program is designed to help struggling students succeed in catching up to their peers, equipping them to be successful in Algebra I and their future mathematics and science courses.

An Architecture of Intensification: Building a Comprehensive Program for Struggling Students in Double-Period Algebra Classes

Universal Design of Inquiry-based Middle and High School Science Curricula (Collaborative Research: Rose)

CAST, the University of Michigan, and EDC are collaborating to create heuristics for universally designed middle and high school science materials; to build an open-source UDL Inquiry Science System (ISS) that enables science curricula to be transformed into digitally supported versions that incorporate UDL features, to use the ISS to produce four UDL exemplars from tested instructional materials, and to evaluate the benefits of these exemplars for grades-5–12 students with and without learning disabilities.

Award Number: 
0730260
Funding Period: 
Sat, 09/15/2007 - Tue, 08/31/2010
Project Evaluator: 
Dan Zalles, SRI
Universal Design of Inquiry-based Middle and High School Science Curricula (Collaborative Research: Rose)

National Forum for Action on the Report of the National Math Panel

The Conference Board for the Mathematical Sciences (CBMS) is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Education to host a forum in Washington, DC designed to launch action for change in mathematics education based on the recommendations of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel. This forum will focus specifically on the following four areas: teachers and teacher education, learning processes, instructional material, and standards of evidence—research policies and mechanisms.

Award Number: 
0848681
Funding Period: 
Mon, 09/15/2008 - Tue, 08/31/2010
National Forum for Action on the Report of the National Math Panel
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