Statistics

TRUmath and Lesson Study: Supporting Fundamental and Sustainable Improvement in High School Mathematics Teaching (Collaborative Research: Schoenfeld)

Given the changes in instructional practices needed to support high quality mathematics teaching and learning based on college and career readiness standards, school districts need to provide professional learning opportunities for teachers that support those changes. The project is based on the TRUmath framework and will build a coherent and scalable plan for providing these opportunities in high school mathematics departments, a traditionally difficult unit of organizational change.

Award Number: 
1503454
Funding Period: 
Wed, 07/01/2015 to Sun, 06/30/2019
Full Description: 

Given the changes in instructional practices needed to support high quality mathematics teaching and learning based on college and career readiness standards, school districts need to provide professional learning opportunities for teachers that support those changes. The project will build a coherent and scalable plan for providing these opportunities in high school mathematics departments, a traditionally difficult unit of organizational change. Based on the TRUmath framework, characterizing the five essential dimensions of powerful mathematics classrooms, the project brings together a focus on curricular materials that support teaching, Lesson Study protocols and materials, and a professional learning community-based professional development model. The project will design and revise professional development and coaching guides and lesson study mathematical resources built around the curricular materials. The project will study changes in instructional practice and impact on student learning. By documenting the supports used in the Oakland Unified School District where the research and development will be conducted, the resources can be used by other districts and in similar work by other research-practice partnerships.

This project hypothesizes that the quality of classroom instruction can be defined by five dimensions - quality of the mathematics; cognitive demand of the tasks; access to mathematics content in the classroom; student agency, authority, and identity; and uses of assessment. The project will use an iterative design process to develop and refine a suite of tool, including a conversation guide to support productive dialogue between teachers and coaches, support materials for building site-based professional learning materials, and formative assessment lessons using Lesson Study as a mechanism to enact reforms of these dimensions. The study will use a pre-post design and natural variation to student the relationships between these dimensions, changes in teachers' instructional practice, and student learning using hierarchical linear modeling with random intercept models with covariates. Qualitative of the changes in teachers' instructional practices will be based on coding of observations based on the TRUmath framework. The study will also use qualitative analysis techniques to identify themes from surveys and interviews on factors that promote or hinder the effectiveness of the intervention.

PBS NewsHour STEM Student Reporting Labs: Broad Expansion of Youth Journalism to Support Increased STEM Literacy Among Underserved Student Populations and Their Communities

The production of news stories and student-oriented instruction in the classroom are designed to increase student learning of STEM content through student-centered inquiry and reflections on metacognition. This project scales up the PBS NewsHour Student Reporting Labs (SRL), a model that trains teens to produce video reports on important STEM issues from a youth perspective.

Award Number: 
1503315
Funding Period: 
Sat, 08/01/2015 to Wed, 07/31/2019
Full Description: 

The Discovery Research K-12 program (DR-K12) seeks to significantly enhance the learning and teaching of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) by preK-12 students and teachers, through research and development of innovative resources, models and tools (RMTs). Projects in the DRK-12 program build on fundamental research in STEM education and prior research and development efforts that provide theoretical and empirical justification for proposed projects. This project scales up the PBS NewsHour Student Reporting Labs (SRL), a model that trains teens to produce video reports on important STEM issues from a youth perspective. Participating schools receive a SRL journalism and digital media literacy curriculum, a mentor for students from a local PBS affiliate, professional development for educators, and support from the PBS NewsHour team. The production of news stories and student-oriented instruction in the classroom are designed to increase student learning of STEM content through student-centered inquiry and reflections on metacognition. Students will develop a deep understanding of the material to choose the best strategy to teach or tell the STEM story to others through digital media. Over the 4 years of the project, the model will be expanded from the current 70 schools to 150 in 40 states targeting schools with high populations of underrepresented youth. New components will be added to the model including STEM professional mentors and a social media and media analytics component. Project partners include local PBS stations, Project Lead the Way, and Share My Lesson educators.

The research study conducted by New Knowledge, LLC will add new knowledge about the growing field of youth science journalism and digital media. Front-end evaluation will assess students' understanding of contemporary STEM issues by deploying a web-based survey to crowd-source youth reactions, interest, questions, and thoughts about current science issues. A subset of questions will explore students' tendencies to pass newly-acquired information to members of the larger social networks. Formative evaluation will include qualitative and quantitative studies of multiple stakeholders at the Student Reporting Labs to refine the implementation of the program. Summative evaluation will track learning outcomes/changes such as: How does student reporting on STEM news increase their STEM literacy competencies? How does it affect their interest in STEM careers? Which strategies are most effective with underrepresented students? How do youth communicate with each other about science content, informing news media best practices? The research team will use data from pre/post and post-delayed surveys taken by 1700 students in the STEM Student Reporting Labs and 1700 from control groups. In addition, interviews with teachers will assess the curriculum and impressions of student engagement.


Project Videos

2019 STEM for All Video Showcase

Title: How Video Storytelling Reengages Teenagers in STEM Learning

Presenter(s): Leah Clapman & William Swift

2018 STEM for All Video Showcase

Title: PBS NewsHour's STEM SRL Transforms Classrooms into Newsrooms

Presenter(s): Leah Clapman & William Swift

2017 STEM for All Video Showcase

Title: PBS is Building the Next Generation of STEM Communicators

Presenter(s): Leah Clapman, John Fraser, Su-Jen Roberts, & Bill Swift


Scientific Data in Schools: Measuring the Efficacy of an Innovative Approach to Integrating Quantitative Reasoning in Secondary Science (Collaborative Research: Stuhlsatz)

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1503005
Funding Period: 
Wed, 07/15/2015 to Fri, 05/31/2019
Project Evaluator: 
Kristin Bass
Full Description: 

The goal of this project is to investigate whether the integration of real data from cutting-edge scientific research in grade 6-10 classrooms will increase students’ quantitative reasoning ability in the context of science. Data Nuggets are activity-based resources that address current needs in STEM education and were developed by science graduate students and science teachers at Michigan State University through prior support from the NSF GK-12 program and the BEACON Center for the Study of Evolution in Action. The goal of Data Nuggets is to engage students in the practices of science through an innovative approach that combines scientific content from authentic research with key concepts in quantitative reasoning. Partners from Michigan State University and BSCS will adapt the materials to address current science and mathematics standards, create a professional development program for teachers, and test the efficacy of the materials through a cluster-randomized trial in the classrooms of 30 teachers in Michigan, Colorado, and California.

The project will study whether short, targeted interventions of classroom activities embedded within a typical curriculum can impact student outcomes. Prior to the study teachers will participate in professional development. Classrooms of the teachers in the study will be randomly assigned to either a treatment or comparison condition. Student outcome measures will include understanding of quantitative reasoning in the context of science, understanding of the practices and processes of science, student engagement and motivation, and interest in science.

In order to adequately train the next generation of citizens and scientists, research is needed on how quantitative reasoning skills build upon each other throughout K-16 science education Students need to experience activities that emphasize how science is conducted, and apply their understandings of how scientists reason quantitatively. Establishing the efficacy of Data Nuggets could provide the field with information about supplementing existing curriculum with short interventions targeted at particular scientific practices. By facilitating student access to authentic science, Data Nuggets bridge the gap between scientists and the public. Scientists who create Data Nuggets practice their communication skills and share both the process of science and research findings with K-12 students (and perhaps their families), undergraduates, and teachers, improving the understanding of science in society.

GRIDS: Graphing Research on Inquiry with Data in Science

The Graphing Research on Inquiry with Data in Science (GRIDS) project will investigate strategies to improve middle school students' science learning by focusing on student ability to interpret and use graphs. GRIDS will undertake a comprehensive program to address the need for improved graph comprehension. The project will create, study, and disseminate technology-based assessments, technologies that aid graph interpretation, instructional designs, professional development, and learning materials.

Award Number: 
1418423
Funding Period: 
Mon, 09/01/2014 to Sat, 08/31/2019
Full Description: 

The Graphing Research on Inquiry with Data in Science (GRIDS) project is a four-year full design and development proposal, addressing the learning strand, submitted to the DR K-12 program at the NSF. GRIDS will investigate strategies to improve middle school students' science learning by focusing on student ability to interpret and use graphs. In middle school math, students typically graph only linear functions and rarely encounter features used in science, such as units, scientific notation, non-integer values, noise, cycles, and exponentials. Science teachers rarely teach about the graph features needed in science, so students are left to learn science without recourse to what is inarguably a key tool in learning and doing science. GRIDS will undertake a comprehensive program to address the need for improved graph comprehension. The project will create, study, and disseminate technology-based assessments, technologies that aid graph interpretation, instructional designs, professional development, and learning materials.

GRIDS will start by developing the GRIDS Graphing Inventory (GGI), an online, research-based measure of graphing skills that are relevant to middle school science. The project will address gaps revealed by the GGI by designing instructional activities that feature powerful digital technologies including automated guidance based on analysis of student generated graphs and student writing about graphs. These materials will be tested in classroom comparison studies using the GGI to assess both annual and longitudinal progress. Approximately 30 teachers selected from 10 public middle schools will participate in the project, along with approximately 4,000 students in their classrooms. A series of design studies will be conducted to create and test ten units of study and associated assessments, and a minimum of 30 comparison studies will be conducted to optimize instructional strategies. The comparison studies will include a minimum of 5 experiments per term, each with 6 teachers and their 600-800 students. The project will develop supports for teachers to guide students to use graphs and science knowledge to deepen understanding, and to develop agency and identity as science learners.

CodeR4STATS - Code R for AP Statistics

This project builds on prior efforts to create teaching resources for high-school Advanced Placement Statistics teachers to use an open source statistics programming language called "R" in their classrooms. The project brings together datasets from a variety of STEM domains, and will develop exercises and assessments to teach students how to program in R and learn the underlying statistics concepts.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1418163
Funding Period: 
Mon, 09/01/2014 to Sat, 08/31/2019
Full Description: 

Increasingly, all STEM fields rely on being able to understand data and use statistics. This project builds on prior efforts to create teaching resources for high-school Advanced Placement Statistics teachers to use an open source statistics programming language called "R" in their classrooms. The project brings together datasets from a variety of STEM domains, and will develop exercises and assessments to teach students how to program in R and learn the underlying statistics concepts. Thus, this project attempts to help students learn coding, statistics, and STEM simultaneously in the context of AP Stats. In addition, researchers will examine the extent to which students learn statistical concepts, computational fluency, and critical reasoning skills better with the online tools.

The resources developed by the project aim to enhance statistics learning through an integrated application of strategies previously documented to be effective: a focus on data visualization and representation, engaging students in meaningful investigations with complex real-world data sets, utilizing computational tools and techniques to analyze data, and better preparing educators for the needs of a more complex and technologically-rich mathematical landscape. This project will unite these lines of work into one streamlined pedagogical environment called CodeR4STATS with three kinds of resources: computing resources, datasets, and assessment resources. Computing resources will include freely available access to an instance of the cloud-based R-studio with custom help pages. Data resources will include over 800 scientific datasets from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Harvard University's Institute for Quantitative Social Science, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Boston University, and Tufts University with several highlighted in case studies for students; these will be searchable within the online environment. Assessment and tutoring resources will be provided using the tutoring platform ASSISTments which uses example tracing to provide assessment, feedback, and tailored instruction. Teacher training and a teacher online discussion board will also be provided. Bringing these resources together will be programming lab activities, five real-world case studies, and sixteen statistics assignments linked to common core math standards. Researchers will use classroom observational case studies from three classrooms over two years, including cross-case comparison of lessons in the computational environment versus offline lessons; student and teacher interviews; and an analysis of learner data from the online system, especially the ASSISTments-based assessment data. This research will examine learning outcomes and help refine design principles for statistics learning environments.

Common Online Data Analysis Platform (CODAP)

This project aims to engage students in meaningful scientific data collection, analysis, visualization, modeling, and interpretation. It targets grades 9-12 science instruction. The proposed research poses the question "How do learners conceive of and interact with empirical data, particularly when it has a hierarchical structure in which parameters and results are at one level and raw data at another?"

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1435470
Funding Period: 
Tue, 10/01/2013 to Fri, 09/30/2016
Full Description: 

This project aims to engage students in meaningful scientific data collection, analysis, visualization, modeling, and interpretation. It targets grades 9-12 science instruction. The proposed research poses the question "How do learners conceive of and interact with empirical data, particularly when it has a hierarchical structure in which parameters and results are at one level and raw data at another?" As working with data becomes an integral part of students' learning across STEM curricula, understanding how students conceive of data grows ever more important. This is particularly timely as science becomes more and more data driven.

The team will develop and test a Common Online Data Analysis Platform (CODAP). STEM curriculum development has moved online, but development of tools for students to engage in data analysis has yet to follow suit. As a result, online curriculum development projects are often forced to develop their own data analysis tools, settle for desktop tools, or do without. In a collaboration with NSF-funded projects at the Concord Consortium, Educational Development Center, and University of Minnesota, the project team is developing an online, open source data analysis platform that can be used not only by these three projects, but subsequently by others.

The proposed research breaks new ground both in questions to be investigated and in methodology. The investigations build on prior research on students' understanding of data representation, measures of center and spread, and data modeling to look more closely at students' understanding of data structures especially as they appear in real scientific situations. Collaborative design based on three disparate STEM projects will yield a flexible data analysis environment that can be adopted by additional projects in subsequent years. Such a design process increases the likelihood that CODAP will be more than a stand-alone tool, and can be meaningfully integrated into online curricula. CODAP's overarching goal is to improve the preparation of students to fully participate in an increasingly data-driven society. It proposes to do so by improving a critical piece of infrastructure: namely, access to classroom-friendly data analysis tools by curriculum developers who wish to integrate student engagement with data into content learning.

This project is asociated with award number 1316728 with the same title.

Learning Mathematics of the City in the City

This project is developing teaching modules that engage high school students in learning and using mathematics. Using geo-spatial technologies, students explore their city with the purpose of collecting data they bring back to the formal classroom and use as part of their mathematics lessons. This place-based orientation helps students connect their everyday and school mathematical thinking. Researchers are investigating the impact of place-based learning on students' attitudes, beliefs, and self-concepts about mathematics in urban schools.

Lead Organization(s): 
Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1222430
Funding Period: 
Sat, 09/01/2012 to Mon, 08/31/2015
Full Description: 

Learning Mathematics of the City in The City is an exploratory project that is developing teaching modules that engage high school students in learning mathematics and using the mathematics they learn. Using geo-spatial technologies, students explore their city with the purpose of collecting data they bring back to the formal classroom and use as part of their mathematics lessons. This place-based orientation is helping students connect their everyday and school mathematical thinking.

Researchers are investigating the impact of place-based learning on students' attitudes, beliefs, and self-concepts about mathematics in urban schools. Specifically, researchers want to understand how place-based learning helps students apply mathematics to address questions about their local environment. Researchers are also learning about the opportunities for teaching mathematics using carefully planned lessons enhanced by geo-spatial technologies. Data are being collected through student interviews, classroom observations, student questionnaires, and student work.

As the authors explain, "The use of familiar or engaging contexts is widely accepted as productive in the teaching and learning of mathematics." By working in urban neighborhoods with large populations of low-income families, this exploratory project is illustrating what can be done to engage students in mathematics and mathematical thinking. The products from the project include student materials, software adaptations, lesson plans, and findings from their research. These products enable further experimentation with place-based mathematics learning and lead the way for connecting mathematical activities in school and outside of school.

CAREER: Learning to Support Productive Collective Argumentation in Secondary Mathematics Classes

Research has shown that engaging students, including students from underrepresented groups, in appropriately structured reasoning activities, including argumentation, may lead to enhanced learning. This project will provide information about how teachers learn to support collective argumentation and will allow for the development of professional development materials for prospective and practicing teachers that will enhance their support for productive collective argumentation.

Award Number: 
1149436
Funding Period: 
Sun, 07/01/2012 to Sun, 06/30/2019
Full Description: 

Doing mathematics involves more than simply solving problems; justifying mathematical claims is an important part of doing mathematics. In fact, proving and justifying are central goals of learning mathematics. Recently, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics has again raised the issue of making and critiquing arguments as a central practice for students studying mathematics. If students are to learn to make and critique arguments within their mathematics classes, teachers must be prepared to support their students in learning to argue appropriately in mathematics. This learning often occurs during class discussions in which arguments are made public for all students in the class. The act of creating arguments together in a classroom is called collective argumentation. Teachers need to be able to support students in productively engaging in collective argumentation, but research has not yet shown how they learn to do so. This project will document how mathematics teachers learn to support their students in engaging in productive collective argumentation. The research team will follow a cohort of participants (college students majoring in mathematics education) through their mathematics education coursework, observing their engagement in collective argumentation and opportunities to learn about supporting collective argumentation. The team will continue to follow the participants into their first two years of teaching, focusing on how their support for collective argumentation evolves over time. During their first two years of teaching, the research team and participants will work together to analyze the participants' support for collective argumentation in order to help the participants develop more effective ways to support collective argumentation.

Research has shown that engaging students, including students from underrepresented groups, in appropriately structured reasoning activities, including argumentation, may lead to enhanced learning. This project will provide information about how teachers learn to support collective argumentation and will allow for the development of professional development materials for prospective and practicing teachers that will enhance their support for productive collective argumentation.

Core Math Tools

This project is developing Core Math Tools, a suite of Java-based software including a computer algebra system (CAS), interactive geometry, statistics, and simulation tools together with custom apps for exploring specific mathematical or statistical topics. Core Math Tools is freely available to all learners, teachers, and teacher educators through a dedicated portal at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) web site.

Lead Organization(s): 
Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1201917
Funding Period: 
Sun, 01/15/2012 to Mon, 12/31/2012
Project Evaluator: 
David Barnes, NCTM
Full Description: 

Core Math Tools is a project from Western Michigan University that meets the urgent need of providing mathematical tools that students can use as they explore and learn mathematical concepts that are aligned with the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSSM). The developers have repurposed and modified tools originally designed for an NSF-funded curriculum project (e.g., Core-Plus Mathematics), creating a suite of tools that supports student learning of mathematics regardless of the curricula choice. Core math Tools is Java-based software that includes a computer algebra system(CAS, interactive geometry, statistics, and simulation tools together with custom apps for exploring specific mathematical and statistical topics. The designers provide exemplary lessons illustrating how the software can be used in the spirit of the new CCSSM. The goal of the project is to provide equitable and easy access to mathematical software both in school and outside of school. The tools are available to all learners and teachers through the web site of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). The web site includes feedback loops for teachers to provide information about the tools. By using the NCTM website, the tools can be downloaded for use by teachers and students. The dedicated portal on the NCTM website allows supervisors to use the tools in professional development, teachers to use the tools as an integral part of instruction, and students to use the tools for exploring, conjecturing, and problem solving.

CAREER: Investigating Middle and Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Transformative Learning of Statistics Within Professional Development

The project will examine how teachers reason about variation subsequent to focused instruction and contribute knowledge to in-service middle and secondary mathematics teacher education by targeting characteristics of professional development that might support teachers' reasoning about variation in increasingly sophisticated ways. The project will produce a coherent collection of shareable instructional materials for use in introductory statistics education and teacher education in statistics.

Award Number: 
1149403
Funding Period: 
Fri, 06/01/2012 to Fri, 05/31/2019
Full Description: 

This CAREER project addresses the professional development of middle and secondary mathematics teachers by investigating teachers' statistical reasoning and targeting characteristics of professional development that support teachers' development of increasingly sophisticated ways to reason about variation. Statistical variation plays a critical role throughout statistical investigation.

The project integrates educational and research activities in its design and implementation of a professional development program and research on the professional development. The research addresses three interrelated questions: In a professional development program that encourages reasoning about variation from multiple perspectives and that encourages dilemma, critical reflection, and rational discourse:

1. How do middle and secondary mathematics teachers reason about variation from design, data-centric, and modeling perspectives?

2. In what ways do dilemma, critical reflection, and rational discourse affect teachers' reasoning about variation?

3. How do teachers differently engage with and benefit from dilemma, critical reflection, and rational discourse?

The project relies on multiple data sources and strategically chosen combinations of qualitative and quantitative methods to answer the three research questions. Data sources from two cohorts of teachers include statistics assessments, interviews, video-recordings of program activities, reflective journals, and classroom observations.

The project will examine how teachers reason about variation subsequent to focused instruction and contribute knowledge to in-service middle and secondary mathematics teacher education by targeting characteristics of professional development that might support teachers' reasoning about variation in increasingly sophisticated ways. The project will produce a coherent collection of shareable instructional materials for use in introductory statistics education and teacher education in statistics.

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