Mathematical literacy is a critical need in our increasingly technological society. Fractions have been identified as a key area of understanding, both for success in Algebra and for access to higher-level mathematics. The project uses learning analytics and educational data mining methods to examine how elementary students learn in Refraction, an online game designed to teach fractions using the splitting model. The project uses the data from a pre- and posttest of fraction understanding and log data from 3000 third-grade students' gameplay to examine the following questions:

1) Is splitting an effective way to learn fractions?

2) How do students learn by splitting?

3) Are there common pathways students follow as they learn by splitting?

4) Are there optimal pathways for diverse learners?

Splitting is a well-known theory of fraction learning and has significant expert buy in. However, few of the research questions above can be advanced past the field's present level of understanding with either current qualitative or quantitative methods. By using data mining methods such as cluster analysis, association rule mining, and predictive analysis, the project provides numerous insights about student learning through splitting, including: classification of learning profiles exhibited in unstructured learning environments, common mistakes and sense-making patterns, the value or cost of exploration in learning, and the best path through learning for different students (such as those who score low on a pre-test).

The project staff shares the methods and results through traditional and novel outlets for maximum impact on the field and on policy. In addition to conferences and journal publications, the principal investigator is working in several contexts in which this work is an exemplar of new ways the field can develop understanding of learning. In addition, many of these contexts have connections to efforts such as the Chief State School Officers' Shared Learning Collaborative, leading to a high probability that the findings and products can quickly impact large numbers of schools across the country.