Student Outcomes

Target Inquiry: Investigating the Teacher and Student Effects of a New Model in Chemistry Teacher Professional Development

This five-year research project has as its central aim the testing of the Target Inquiry (TI) model of teacher professional development with secondary school chemistry teachers. This model emphasizes the importance of the inquiry process in teaching and learning science by combining a research experience for teachers (RET) with curriculum adaptation and action research.

Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
0553215
Funding Period: 
Mon, 05/01/2006 to Sat, 04/30/2011
Full Description: 

Inquiry is the foundation of teaching and learning and is therefore at the center of the TI model.  The features of the TI model are designed to encourage and improve inquiry instruction by impacting teachers’ beliefs and attitudes, and content and pedagogical knowledge, as well as providing adequate resources and materials.  The model integrates the core experiences (research experience for teachers (RET), materials adaptation, action research) with the central characteristics of high-quality PD programs (duration, cohort participation, active learning, coherence, and content-focus (Garet, et al., 2001)) in alignment with the National Science Education Professional Development Standards (NRC, 1996) (see TI model on website).

Although many teachers associate inquiry with research scientists, the underlying habits of mind by which one actively acquires new knowledge are the same for a scientist in a research laboratory, a student in a science classroom, or a teacher assessing student understanding (Llewellyn, 2005; AAAS, 1993).  The RET will allow teachers to further develop habits of mind central to inquiry such as curiosity, persistence, reflection, skepticism, and creativity while gaining firsthand experience in how chemistry research is conducted.  However, research has shown that affecting instructional change requires clear connections to classroom practices (Gess-Newsome, 2001), and many teachers have difficulty translating the laboratory research experience to classroom instruction that promotes inquiry habits of mind.  Thus, the other core experiences and supporting features of TI are designed to build upon the RET, facilitating connections between the research laboratory and classroom practices, so that teachers can effectively engage their students in authentic inquiry activities. 

At GVSU, the TI model has been translated into seven graduate chemistry education courses to be taken over three years, with a majority of work to be carried out over three summers.  A five year study of the program, consisting of data from two cohorts shows that teachers beliefs about science inquiry become more aligned with those of practicing scientists following the RET experience; both the RET and materials adaptation experiences are required for significant gains in reformed teaching practices as measured by the RTOP instrument; teachers feel they have developed the skills to help them continue to reform their teaching practices; teachers believe that the use of inquiry instruction engages more of their students and results in better student confidence and retention; and student outcome measures show overall improvement in student content gains as teachers progress through the program.

Investigating the Effect of Professional Development, Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching, and Instruction on Student Outcomes

To meet College and Career-Ready standards in mathematics, classroom instruction must change dramatically.  As in past reform efforts, many look to professional development as a major force to propel this transformation, yet not enough is known about mathematics professional development programs that operate at scale in the United States. In this project, we evaluated one such program.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
0918383
Funding Period: 
Tue, 09/01/2009 to Fri, 08/31/2012
Full Description: 

To meet College and Career-Ready standards in mathematics, classroom instruction must change dramatically.  As in past reform efforts, many look to professional development as a major force to propel this transformation, yet not enough is known about mathematics professional development programs that operate at scale in the United States. In this project, we evaluated one such program by randomly assigning 105 teachers to either an “as is” control group or to receive professional development designed to a) improve mathematical knowledge for teaching and b) help teachers revise their instruction to be more cognitively demanding and student-centered. We found positive impacts on teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching, but no effects on teaching or student outcomes, suggesting that a modest increment in mathematical knowledge may not by itself be sufficient to improve instruction or student outcomes.

Evaluation of High School Science Courses

This project collects evidence supporting the validity of test instruments and initial characterization of high school teachers' background and use of materials and pedagogies. The project is constructing and validating multiple forms of test instruments that can be used for the evaluation of interventions (e.g. professional development, implementation of new curricula) and the measurement of aspects of teacher knowledge (e.g. subject matter, knowledge of student misconceptions).

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
0732151
Funding Period: 
Wed, 08/15/2007 to Fri, 07/31/2009

Creation and Dissemination of Upper-elementary Mathematics Assessment Modules

This project has constructed, pilot tested, validated, and is now disseminating assessments of student achievement for use in upper elementary grades.
Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
0831450
Funding Period: 
Fri, 05/01/2009 to Mon, 04/30/2012
Full Description: 
This project has constructed, pilot tested, validated, and is now disseminating assessments of student achievement for use in upper elementary grades. There are four equivalent forms for each of the fourth and fifth grades, with each form covering (1) number and operations, (2) pre-algebra and algebra, and (3) geometry and measurement. Items are based in the literature on student's cognitive growth and are meant to:
  • Represent central ideas in the subject matter;
  • Focus on the meaning of facts and procedures; and
  • Require more complex responses than traditional multiple-choice problems. 
These forms and associated technical materials can be accessed at: http://cepr.harvard.edu/ncte-student-assessments

Helping Teachers to Use and Students To Learn From Contrasting Examples: A Scale-up Study in Algebra I

Several small-scale experimental classroom studies Star and Rittle-Johnson demonstrate the value of comparison in mathematics learning: Students who learned by comparing and contrasting alternative solution methods made greater gains in conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and flexibility than those who studied the same solution methods one at a time. This study will extend that prior work by developing, piloting, and then evaluating the impact of comparison on students' learning of mathematics in a full-year algebra course.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
0814571
Funding Period: 
Mon, 09/15/2008 to Tue, 08/31/2010

Simulation and Modeling in Technology Education (SMTE)

This project develops and researches the academic potential of a hybrid instructional model that infuses computer simulations, modeling, and educational gaming into middle school technology education programs. These prototypical materials use 3-D simulations and educational gaming to support students’ learning of STEM content and skills through developing solutions to design challenges.

Project Email: 
Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
0821965
Funding Period: 
Fri, 08/01/2008 to Sun, 07/31/2011
Project Evaluator: 
Dr. Deborah Hecht

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