Standards

Co-Designing for Statewide Alignment of a Vision for High-Quality Mathematics Instruction (Collaborative Research: Wilson)

This project will develop a process for creating a shared, state-wide vision of high-quality mathematics instruction. It will also develop and study the resources to implement that vision at the state, district, and school levels. In addition, the project will investigate a collaborative process of designing and implementing high-quality mathematics instruction at a state level.

Award Number: 
2100903
Funding Period: 
Thu, 07/15/2021 to Mon, 06/30/2025
Full Description: 

Mathematics teaching and learning is influenced by policy and practice at the state, district, and school levels. To support large-scale change, it is important for high-quality mathematics instruction to be aligned and cohesive across each level of the education system. This can be supported through regional partnerships among state, district, and school-based leaders, mathematics teachers, education researchers, and mathematicians. Such partnerships create instructional tools and resources to document the vision for instruction. For example, teams can work together to create instructional frameworks for each grade band that describe standards, mathematics teaching, and units for teaching. This project will develop a process for creating a shared, state-wide vision of high-quality mathematics instruction. It will also develop and study the resources to implement that vision at the state, district, and school levels. In addition, the project will investigate a collaborative process of designing and implementing high-quality mathematics instruction at a state level.

This project will develop a shared vision of high-quality mathematics instruction intended to improve systemic coherence during the implementation of education innovations. The project uses a research-practice partnership with a design-based implementation research design. To examine and support implementation of the vision, partners will continue a process of developing instructional frameworks, research and practice briefs, as well as additional resources as needed by stakeholders in the system. Engaging partners at all levels of the system is a central component of developing the shared vision of instruction. This project includes three major research questions. First, what are visions of high-quality mathematics instruction held by educators at different levels of a state educational system? Second, in what ways do educators' visions of high-quality mathematics instruction mediate their use of implementation resources in practice? Finally, in what ways do educators’ visions of high-quality mathematics instruction mediate their participation in the co-design of implementation resources? An activity theory framework is used to understand the interactions between partners at different levels in the system and the creation of artifacts during the design process. The research methods for the study are situated in design-based research to capture the conjectures, instructional resources, design processes, and outcomes of the process. The project will use case studies of partner districts, data gathering from interactions with partners, artifacts of the design process, and other documentation to understand how the vision is created and enacted in different settings and to develop an empirically supported design framework and methodology for implementing STEM innovations at scale that centralizes a shared instructional vision.

Co-Designing for Statewide Alignment of a Vision for High-Quality Mathematics Instruction (Collaborative Research: Mawhinney)

This project will develop a process for creating a shared, state-wide vision of high-quality mathematics instruction. It will also develop and study the resources to implement that vision at the state, district, and school levels. In addition, the project will investigate a collaborative process of designing and implementing high-quality mathematics instruction at a state level.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
2100833
Funding Period: 
Thu, 07/15/2021 to Mon, 06/30/2025
Full Description: 

Mathematics teaching and learning is influenced by policy and practice at the state, district, and school levels. To support large-scale change, it is important for high-quality mathematics instruction to be aligned and cohesive across each level of the education system. This can be supported through regional partnerships among state, district, and school-based leaders, mathematics teachers, education researchers, and mathematicians. Such partnerships create instructional tools and resources to document the vision for instruction. For example, teams can work together to create instructional frameworks for each grade band that describe standards, mathematics teaching, and units for teaching. This project will develop a process for creating a shared, state-wide vision of high-quality mathematics instruction. It will also develop and study the resources to implement that vision at the state, district, and school levels. In addition, the project will investigate a collaborative process of designing and implementing high-quality mathematics instruction at a state level.

This project will develop a shared vision of high-quality mathematics instruction intended to improve systemic coherence during the implementation of education innovations. The project uses a research-practice partnership with a design-based implementation research design. To examine and support implementation of the vision, partners will continue a process of developing instructional frameworks, research and practice briefs, as well as additional resources as needed by stakeholders in the system. Engaging partners at all levels of the system is a central component of developing the shared vision of instruction. This project includes three major research questions. First, what are visions of high-quality mathematics instruction held by educators at different levels of a state educational system? Second, in what ways do educators' visions of high-quality mathematics instruction mediate their use of implementation resources in practice? Finally, in what ways do educators’ visions of high-quality mathematics instruction mediate their participation in the co-design of implementation resources? An activity theory framework is used to understand the interactions between partners at different levels in the system and the creation of artifacts during the design process. The research methods for the study are situated in design-based research to capture the conjectures, instructional resources, design processes, and outcomes of the process. The project will use case studies of partner districts, data gathering from interactions with partners, artifacts of the design process, and other documentation to understand how the vision is created and enacted in different settings and to develop an empirically supported design framework and methodology for implementing STEM innovations at scale that centralizes a shared instructional vision.

Co-Designing for Statewide Alignment of a Vision for High-Quality Mathematics Instruction (Collaborative Research: Schwartz)

This project will develop a process for creating a shared, state-wide vision of high-quality mathematics instruction. It will also develop and study the resources to implement that vision at the state, district, and school levels. In addition, the project will investigate a collaborative process of designing and implementing high-quality mathematics instruction at a state level.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
2100895
Funding Period: 
Thu, 07/15/2021 to Mon, 06/30/2025
Full Description: 

Mathematics teaching and learning is influenced by policy and practice at the state, district, and school levels. To support large-scale change, it is important for high-quality mathematics instruction to be aligned and cohesive across each level of the education system. This can be supported through regional partnerships among state, district, and school-based leaders, mathematics teachers, education researchers, and mathematicians. Such partnerships create instructional tools and resources to document the vision for instruction. For example, teams can work together to create instructional frameworks for each grade band that describe standards, mathematics teaching, and units for teaching. This project will develop a process for creating a shared, state-wide vision of high-quality mathematics instruction. It will also develop and study the resources to implement that vision at the state, district, and school levels. In addition, the project will investigate a collaborative process of designing and implementing high-quality mathematics instruction at a state level.

This project will develop a shared vision of high-quality mathematics instruction intended to improve systemic coherence during the implementation of education innovations. The project uses a research-practice partnership with a design-based implementation research design. To examine and support implementation of the vision, partners will continue a process of developing instructional frameworks, research and practice briefs, as well as additional resources as needed by stakeholders in the system. Engaging partners at all levels of the system is a central component of developing the shared vision of instruction. This project includes three major research questions. First, what are visions of high-quality mathematics instruction held by educators at different levels of a state educational system? Second, in what ways do educators' visions of high-quality mathematics instruction mediate their use of implementation resources in practice? Finally, in what ways do educators’ visions of high-quality mathematics instruction mediate their participation in the co-design of implementation resources? An activity theory framework is used to understand the interactions between partners at different levels in the system and the creation of artifacts during the design process. The research methods for the study are situated in design-based research to capture the conjectures, instructional resources, design processes, and outcomes of the process. The project will use case studies of partner districts, data gathering from interactions with partners, artifacts of the design process, and other documentation to understand how the vision is created and enacted in different settings and to develop an empirically supported design framework and methodology for implementing STEM innovations at scale that centralizes a shared instructional vision.

Co-Designing for Statewide Alignment of a Vision for High-Quality Mathematics Instruction (Collaborative Research: McCulloch)

This project will develop a process for creating a shared, state-wide vision of high-quality mathematics instruction. It will also develop and study the resources to implement that vision at the state, district, and school levels. In addition, the project will investigate a collaborative process of designing and implementing high-quality mathematics instruction at a state level.

Award Number: 
2100947
Funding Period: 
Thu, 07/15/2021 to Mon, 06/30/2025
Full Description: 

Mathematics teaching and learning is influenced by policy and practice at the state, district, and school levels. To support large-scale change, it is important for high-quality mathematics instruction to be aligned and cohesive across each level of the education system. This can be supported through regional partnerships among state, district, and school-based leaders, mathematics teachers, education researchers, and mathematicians. Such partnerships create instructional tools and resources to document the vision for instruction. For example, teams can work together to create instructional frameworks for each grade band that describe standards, mathematics teaching, and units for teaching. This project will develop a process for creating a shared, state-wide vision of high-quality mathematics instruction. It will also develop and study the resources to implement that vision at the state, district, and school levels. In addition, the project will investigate a collaborative process of designing and implementing high-quality mathematics instruction at a state level.

This project will develop a shared vision of high-quality mathematics instruction intended to improve systemic coherence during the implementation of education innovations. The project uses a research-practice partnership with a design-based implementation research design. To examine and support implementation of the vision, partners will continue a process of developing instructional frameworks, research and practice briefs, as well as additional resources as needed by stakeholders in the system. Engaging partners at all levels of the system is a central component of developing the shared vision of instruction. This project includes three major research questions. First, what are visions of high-quality mathematics instruction held by educators at different levels of a state educational system? Second, in what ways do educators' visions of high-quality mathematics instruction mediate their use of implementation resources in practice? Finally, in what ways do educators’ visions of high-quality mathematics instruction mediate their participation in the co-design of implementation resources? An activity theory framework is used to understand the interactions between partners at different levels in the system and the creation of artifacts during the design process. The research methods for the study are situated in design-based research to capture the conjectures, instructional resources, design processes, and outcomes of the process. The project will use case studies of partner districts, data gathering from interactions with partners, artifacts of the design process, and other documentation to understand how the vision is created and enacted in different settings and to develop an empirically supported design framework and methodology for implementing STEM innovations at scale that centralizes a shared instructional vision.

A Researcher-Practitioner Partnership to Assess the Impact of COVID-19 Recession on NGSS Implementation

This project will investigate how NGSS has been implemented in California schools during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Through a state-wide survey, analysis of administrative data, interviews and case studies, this project will assess the impact of COVID-19 on NGSS implementation on a large scale, and more importantly, the extent to which high minority, high-poverty districts are disproportionately affected. It will also identify policy options available to state and school districts.

Award Number: 
2128789
Funding Period: 
Tue, 06/01/2021 to Tue, 05/31/2022
Full Description: 

Today 44 states serving 71 percent of U.S. students have education standards influenced by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Local implementation is the key to the success of NGSS, yet little is known about the extent to which NGSS have been implemented in K-12 schools during COVID-19. Policymakers, educational leaders, and researchers urgently need data to know whether and how NGSS implementation is taking hold in their schools in light of changes due to COVID-19 so that they may design better supports for implementation in anticipation for school reopening for in-person learning in September 2021. This project will investigate how NGSS has been implemented in California schools during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Through a state-wide survey, analysis of administrative data, interviews and case studies, this project will assess the impact of COVID-19 on NGSS implementation on a large scale, and more importantly, the extent to which high minority, high-poverty districts are disproportionately affected. It will also identify policy options available to state and school districts. By collecting critical and timely data, this project will contribute new knowledge to understanding of the impact of COVID-19 on NGSS implementation. This knowledge is a necessary step towards policy and practice solutions that support schools and teachers in continuing implementation of NGSS and expanding educational opportunities to underrepresented minorities, English learners, and students with disabilities in post-COVID-19.

The goals of the project are to (1) assess the impacts of COVID-19 on NGSS implementation in California; (2) examine whether and how high-minority, high-poverty districts are impacted more acutely than other districts; and (3) identify policies and programs state and local districts could prioritize to mitigate the impacts. A mixed methods approach will be used to answer research questions related to the above goals. Specifically, a survey of all school districts in California will be conducted. Text mining of school district administrative data will also be performed. Qualitative methods will include interviews and case studies. Extensive outreach efforts, including one-on-one briefings with the members of the legislative and executive branches, will also take place throughout the year. A researcher-practitioner partnership will be formed through engaging the California State Department of Education in allocating resources for NGSS implementation and local school districts in developing guidelines to support teachers in NGSS-aligned instruction. Project findings will be widely disseminated through online resources and digital libraries to school districts, science teachers, and curriculum developers. Project findings will inform state policymaking and increase the partnerships between research institutions and state government.

COVID Connects Us: Nurturing Novice Teachers’ Justice Science Teaching Identities

In COVID Connects Us, the project team investigates the challenges of learning how to support justice-centered ambitious science teaching (JuST). The project team will partner with networks of secondary science teachers as they first implement a common unit aimed at engaging youth in science and engineering practices in ways that are culturally sustaining, focused on explanation-construction and intentionally anti-oppressive.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
2101217
Funding Period: 
Thu, 07/01/2021 to Sun, 06/30/2024
Full Description: 

This project relates to two contemporary concerns in the US: the devastation felt by racial and ethnic minoritized communities during the COVID-19 pandemic and the challenges states face as they strategically navigate the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards. These concerns necessitate a shift in the culture of science classrooms to align with the following findings from current research on learning: (a) students are best motivated when they need to explain real world events and solve problems that are meaningful to them; (b) when students develop explanations of these real-world events or societal problems and are allowed to participate in creative ways, they can develop deep understandings of core science ideas similar to that of scientists and engineers; and (c) students need to develop a critical lens about what science is studied, how it is studied, and who is left out of what is studied to understand how science is impacted by issues of power and to engage in more just forms of participation. Realizing these cultural transformations in science classrooms will require teachers to develop professional identities that are justice-, student- and culture-centered. In COVID Connects Us, the project team investigates the challenges of learning how to support justice-centered ambitious science teaching (JuST). The project team will partner with networks of secondary science teachers as they first implement a common unit aimed at engaging youth in science and engineering practices in ways that are culturally sustaining, focused on explanation-construction and intentionally anti-oppressive. The teachers will then use their shared experiences to revise future instruction in ways that are justice-centered and that engage students in the ways research suggests is important for their learning.

The goals of this three-year project center on developing and understanding core culture-setting teaching routines that can serve as powerful footholds to realize cultural shifts in science classrooms. The project team will collect and analyze teacher narratives to study the impact of two core and focal teacher supports on participating teachers’ professional identity development as practitioners of JuST practices. The supports include 1) a culture setting unit that all teachers will implement on the science of COVID; and 2) teachers’ engagement in a network of learning communities. During each of the first two academic years of the project, about 20 learning communities made up of four teachers in three different sites will engage in design-based implementation research cycles. These learning communities will collectively study videos of their teaching and samples of student-work to understand and address the challenges of JuST practices. Expected contributions of the study include: (a) a set of JuST routines that teachers find to be effective across curricular units; (b) exemplar JuST units including, but not limited to, the initial unit on the science of COVID; (c) research-based findings about how science educators develop critical consciousness related to disciplinary racism and practices that support students’ in developing the same; and d) vignettes and in-depth case studies of teachers’ development of JuST identities.

Learning about Viral Epidemics through Engagement with Different Types of Models

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for supporting student learning about viral outbreaks and other complex societal issues. Given the complexity of issues like viral outbreaks, engaging learners with different types of models (e.g., mechanistic, computational and system models) is critical. However, there is little research available regarding how learners coordinate sense making across different models.

Award Number: 
2101083
Funding Period: 
Wed, 09/01/2021 to Sun, 08/31/2025
Full Description: 

The project will develop new curriculum and use it to research how high school students learn about viral epidemics while developing competencies for scientific modeling. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for supporting student learning about viral outbreaks and other complex societal issues. Given the complexity of issues like viral outbreaks, engaging learners with different types of models (e.g., mechanistic, computational and system models) is critical. However, there is little research available regarding how learners coordinate sense making across different models. This project will address the gap by studying student learning with different types of models and will use these findings to develop and study new curriculum materials that incorporate multiple models for teaching about viral epidemics in high school biology classes. COVID-19 caused devasting impacts, and marginalized groups including the Latinx community suffered disproportionately negative outcomes. The project will directly recruit Latinx students to ensure that design products are culturally responsive and account for Latinx learner needs. The project will create new pathways for engaging Latinx students in innovative, model-based curriculum about critically important issues. Project research and resources will be widely shared via publications, conference presentations, and professional development opportunities for teachers.

The project will research three aspects of student learning: a) conceptual understandings about viral epidemics, b) epistemic understandings associated with modeling, and c) model-informed reasoning about viral epidemics and potential solutions. The research will be conducted in three phases. Phase 1 will explore how students make sense of viral epidemics through different types of models. This research will be conducted with small groups of students as they work through learning activities and discourse opportunities associated with viral epidemic models. Phase 2 will research how opportunities to engage in modeling across different types of models should be supported and sequenced for learning about viral epidemics. These findings will make it possible to revise the learning performance which will be used to develop a curricular module for high school biology classes. Phase 3 will study the extent to which students learn about viral epidemics through engagement in modeling practices across different models. For this final phase, teachers will participate in professional development about viral epidemics and modeling and then implement the viral epidemic module in their biology classes. A pre- and post-test research design will be used to explore student conceptual understandings, model-informed reasoning, and epistemic understandings.

Developing and Evaluating Assessments of Problem-Solving in Computer Adaptive Testing Environments (Collaborative Research: Sondergeld)

The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) problem-solving measures assess students’ problem-solving performance within the context of CCSSM math content and practices. This project expands the scope of the problem-solving measures use and score interpretation. The project work advances mathematical problem-solving assessments into computer adaptive testing. Computer adaptive testing allows for more precise and efficient targeting of student ability compared to static tests.

Lead Organization(s): 
Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
2101026
Funding Period: 
Sun, 08/01/2021 to Fri, 07/31/2026
Full Description: 

Problem solving has been a priority within K-12 mathematics education for over four decades and is reflected throughout the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) initiative, which have been adopted in some form by 41 states. Broadly defined, problem solving involves the mathematical practices in which students engage as they solve intellectually-challenging mathematical tasks. In prior research, problem-solving measures aligned to CCSSM for grades 3-5 were developed and validated to supplement previously established problem-solving measures in grades 6-8. The problem-solving measures assess students’ problem-solving performance within the context of CCSSM math content and practices. This project expands the scope of the problem-solving measures use and score interpretation. The project work advances mathematical problem-solving assessments into computer adaptive testing. Computer adaptive testing allows for more precise and efficient targeting of student ability compared to static tests. Few measures designed to assess students’ mathematical problem-solving ability use this technology. Shorter tests require less in-class time for assessment than current paper-pencil problem-solving measures and increase classroom instruction time. The computer-adaptive problem-solving measures have sufficient reliability and strong validity evidence, and may limit test-taker fatigue. Finally, the project will benchmark current grades 6-8 instruments using an objective standard-setting method, which allows for improved score interpretations with content-related feedback. Immediate results of student- and class-level reports will be produced through the computer adaptive testing system allowing for teachers to modify instruction to improve students’ learning.

This five-year project aims to advance the use of computer adaptive testing and assessment development for use in mathematics instruction. The project applies an iterative and stakeholder-informed design science-based methodology as well as employs the use of Rasch modeling for the psychometric analysis during item development and validation. The project aims to: (a) benchmark the previously established grades 6-8 problem-solving measures; (b) develop, calibrate, and validate criterion-referenced computer adaptive testing for each measure; (c) construct student- and class-level score reports for integration into the computer adaptive testing system; and (d) investigate teachers’ capacity for implementing, interpreting, and using the assessments and results in STEM learning settings. The project addresses the following set of research questions: (RQ1) What benchmark performance standards define different proficiency levels on problem-solving measures for each grade level? (RQ2) What are the psychometric properties of new problem-solving measures items developed for the computer adaptive testing item bank? (RQ3) Is there significant item drift across student populations on the new problem-solving measure items? (RQ4) To what extent are problem-solving measures item calibrations stable within the computer adaptive testing system? (RQ5) What recommendations for improvements do teachers and students have for the new problem-solving measures items, computer adaptive testing platform and reporting system, if any? (RQ6) To what extent do teachers interact with, perceive, and make sense of the assessment information generated for use in practice? and (RQ7) Does an online learning module build teacher capacity for problem solving measures, computer adaptive testing implementation, interpretation, and use of student assessment outcomes in STEM learning settings? An experimental design will be utilized to investigate teachers’ capacity for implementing, interpreting, and using problem solving measures in a computer adaptive testing system. The project has the potential to impact the field by providing school districts and researchers a means to assess students’ mathematical problem-solving performance at one time or growth over time efficiently and effectively; address future online learning needs; and improve classroom teaching through more precise information about students’ strengths with less class time focused on assessment.

Supporting High School Students and Teachers with a Digital, Localizable, Climate Education Experience

This partnership of BSCS Science Learning, Oregon Public Broadcasting, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration advances curriculum materials development for high quality units that are intentionally designed for adaptation by teachers for their local context. The project will create a base unit on carbon cycling as a foundation for understanding how and why the Earth's climate is changing, and it will study the process of localizing the unit for teachers to implement across varied contexts to incorporate local phenomena, problems, and solutions.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
2100808
Funding Period: 
Thu, 07/01/2021 to Mon, 06/30/2025
Full Description: 

Teachers regularly adapt curriculum materials to localize for their school or community context, yet curriculum materials are not always created to support this localization. Developing materials that are intentionally designed for localization has potential to support rich science learning across different contexts, especially for a topic like climate change where global change can have varied local effects. This partnership of BSCS Science Learning, Oregon Public Broadcasting, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration advances curriculum materials development for high quality units that are intentionally designed for adaptation by teachers for their local context. It will develop and test a design process bringing together national designers and teachers across the country. Teachers will be supported through professional learning to adapt from the base unit to create a local learning experience for their students. The project will create a base unit on carbon cycling as a foundation for understanding how and why the Earth's climate is changing, and it will study the process of localizing the unit for teachers to implement across varied contexts to incorporate local phenomena, problems, and solutions. The unit will be fully digital with rich visual experiences, simulations, and computer models that incorporate real-time data and the addition of localized data sets. These data-based learning experiences will support students in reasoning with data to ask and answer questions about phenomena. Research will study the unit development and localization process, the supports appropriate for teachers and students, and the impact on classroom practice.

The project will adopt an iterative design process to create a Storyline base unit, aligned to Next Generation Science Standards, for localization, piloting, and an implementation study with 40 teachers. To support teacher learning, the project adopts the STeLLA teacher professional learning model. To support student learning, the project addresses climate change content knowledge with a focus on socioscientific issues and students’ sense of agency with environmental science. The project will research how the educative features in the unit and the professional development impact teachers’ practice, including their content knowledge, comfort for teaching a socioscientific issue, and their ability to productively localize materials from a base unit. The study uses a cohort-control quasi-experimental design to examine the impact of the unit and professional learning experience on dimensions of students' sense of agency with environmental science. The study will also include exploratory analyses to examine whether all students benefit from the unit. It uses a pre-post design to examine impacts on teacher knowledge and practice.

Supporting Instructional Decision Making: The Potential of Automatically Scored Three-Dimensional Assessment System (Collaborative Research: Zhai)

This project will study the utility of a machine learning-based assessment system for supporting middle school science teachers in making instructional decisions based on automatically generated student reports (AutoRs). The assessments target three-dimensional (3D) science learning by requiring students to integrate scientific practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas to make sense of phenomena or solve complex problems.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
2101104
Funding Period: 
Wed, 09/01/2021 to Sun, 08/31/2025
Full Description: 
This project will study the utility of a machine learning-based assessment system for supporting middle school science teachers in making instructional decisions based on automatically generated student reports (AutoRs). The assessments target three-dimensional (3D) science learning by requiring students to integrate scientific practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas to make sense of phenomena or solve complex problems. Led by collaborators from University of Georgia, Michigan State University, University of Illinois at Chicago, and WestEd, the project team will develop computer scoring algorithms, a suite of AutoRs, and an array of pedagogical content knowledge supports (PCKSs). These products will assist middle school science teachers in the use of 3D assessments, making informative instructional changes, and improve students’ 3D learning. The project will generate knowledge about teachers’ uses of 3D assessments and examine the potential of automatically scored 3D assessments.
 
The project will achieve the research goals using a mixed-methods design in three phases. Phase I: Develop AutoRs. Machine scoring models for the 3D assessment tasks will be developed using existing data. To support teachers’ interpretation and use of automatic scores, the project team will develop AutoRs and examine how teachers make use of these initial reports. Based on observations and feedback from teachers, AutoRs will be refined using an iterative procedure so that teachers can use them with more efficiency and productivity. Phase II: Develop and test PCKSs. Findings from Phase I, the literature, and interviews with experienced teachers will be employed to develop PCKSs. The project will provide professional learning with teachers on how to use the AutoRs and PCKSs. The project will research how teachers use AutoRs and PCKSs to make instructional decisions. The findings will be used to refine the PCKSs. Phase III: Classroom implementation. In this phase a study will be conducted with a new group of teachers to explore the effectiveness and usability of AutoRs and PCKSs in terms of supporting teachers’ instructional decisions and students’ 3D learning. This project will create knowledge about and formulate a theory of how teachers interpret and attend to students’ performance on 3D assessments, providing critical information on how to support teachers’ responsive instructional decision making. The collaborative team will widely disseminate various products, such as 3D assessment scoring algorithms, AutoRs, PCKSs, and the corresponding professional development programs, and publications to facilitate 3D instruction and learning.

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