Gaming/Virtual Environments

INFEWS/T4: The INFEWS-ER: a Virtual Resource Center Enabling Graduate Innovations at the Nexus of Food, Energy, and Water Systems

This project will provide a virtual environment for completing the Food, Energy, and Water (FEW) graduate student experience. The proposed work facilitates a transition from interdisciplinary to transdisciplinary training of existing faculty and current graduate students through a virtual resource center to help develop systematic processes for interdisciplinary thinking about large societal problems, especially those at the nexus of food, energy, and water.

Award Number: 
1639340
Funding Period: 
Thu, 09/01/2016 - Mon, 08/31/2020
Full Description: 

This project will provide a virtual environment for completing the Food, Energy, and Water (FEW) graduate student experience, thereby facilitating the generation of human capital who can address grand challenges at the nexus of food, energy, and water. The INFEWS-ER will provide educational resources (ER) targeting innovations at the nexus of FEW by combining the fundamental sciences of food, energy, and water with the skills and knowledge of interdisciplinary problem solving and the latest computational modeling and analysis tools and data. These individuals will be capable of analyzing scenarios at the scale of nations, continents, and the globe. The INFEWS-ER will offer certificate programs where FEW Graduate Scholars can demonstrate their capabilities in interdisciplinary thinking, Big Data, and computational modeling and analysis, thereby receiving a credential demonstrating their level of achievement. Further, The INFEWS-ER will offer a faculty fellowship program to incentivize a network of academics that will provide a scaffolded learning environment for graduates, effectively creating a hub for INFEWS research, education, and training.

The proposed work facilitates a transition from interdisciplinary to transdisciplinary training of existing faculty and current graduate students (who will become future faculty, practitioners, and policy makers) through a virtual resource center that will be accessible beyond the project team and project timeframe. Students will develop systematic processes for interdisciplinary thinking. They will be in the best possible position to target large societal problems, especially those at the nexus of food, energy, and water. New, interdisciplinary solutions will emerge, solutions that are sensitive to a wider array of constraints and ideals. Those solutions will reflect the best possible integration of technological, socio-economic, and socio-political constructs. Project impacts include educational and workforce development of the next generation of academics, multi-institution collaboration, and enhanced infrastructure for transdisciplinary research and education. The INFEWS-ER also has the potential to influence the way interdisciplinary research and education is implemented in the future through the archival dissemination of not only learning modules, but also the evaluations and lessons learned from the implementation of the center.

INFEWS/T4: The INFEWS-ER: a Virtual Resource Center Enabling Graduate Innovations at the Nexus of Food, Energy, and Water Systems

Development of the Electronic Test of Early Numeracy

The project will develop and refine an electronic Test of Early Numeracy (e-TEN) in English and Spanish that will assess informal and formal knowledge of number and operations in domains including verbal counting, numbering, numerical relationships, and mental addition/subtraction. The overarching goal of the assessment design is to create a measure that is more accurate, more accessible to a wider range of children, and easier to administer than existing measures.

Partner Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1621470
Funding Period: 
Thu, 09/15/2016 - Tue, 08/31/2021
Full Description: 

The project will develop and refine an electronic Test of Early Numeracy (e-TEN) in English and Spanish, focused on number and operations. The assessment will incorporate a learning trajectory that describes students' development of the understanding of number. The electronic assessment will allow for the test to adapt to students' responses and incorporate games to increase children's engagement with the tasks. These features take advantage of the electronic format. The achievement test will be designed to be efficient, user-friendly, affordable, and accessible for a variety of learning environments and a broad age range (3 to 8 years old). The overarching goal of the assessment design is to create a measure that is more accurate, more accessible to a wider range of children, and easier to administer than existing measures. This project is funded by the Discovery Research Pre-K-12 Program, which funds research and development of STEM innovations and approaches in assessment, teaching and learning.

The e-TEN will assess informal and formal knowledge of number and operations in domains including verbal counting, numbering, numerical relationships, and mental addition/subtraction. The items will be designed using domain-based learning trajectories that describe students' development of understanding of the topics. The test will be designed with some key characteristics. First, it will be semi-adaptive over six-month age spans. Second, it will have an electronic format that allows for uniform implementation and an efficient, user-friendly administration. The test will also be accessible to Spanish speakers using an inclusive assessment model. Finally, the game-based aspect should increase children's engagement and present more meaningful questions. The user-friendly aspect includes simplifying the assessment process compared to other tests of numeracy in early-childhood. The first phase of the development will test a preliminary version of the e-TEN to test its functionality and feasibility. The second phase will focus on norming of the items, reliability and validity. Reliability will be assessed using Item Response Theory methods and test-retest reliability measures. Validity will be examined using criterion-prediction validity and construct validity. The final phase of the work will include creating a Spanish version of the test including collecting data from bilingual children using both versions of the e-TEN.

Development of the Electronic Test of Early Numeracy

Proportions Playground: A Dynamic World to Support Teachers' Proportional Reasoning

This project focuses on the creation of the initial functionality for a dynamic microworld, Proportions Playground, designed to support teachers in developing a coherent understanding of proportional reasoning. The Proportions Playground project seeks to both develop a unique pilot software application for the iPad and explore how it supports teachers in developing a coherent, robust definition of proportions.

Award Number: 
1621290
Funding Period: 
Thu, 09/01/2016 - Thu, 02/28/2019
Full Description: 

Proportions are a critical topic in mathematics that is simultaneously complicated and over-simplified in typical instruction. Current research undertaken by the research team suggests that the over-simplification is related to limitations in teachers' understandings of proportional relationships. Presenting proportions in a dynamic environment offers teachers the opportunity to create key developmental understandings related to this area of mathematics. This project focuses on the creation of the initial functionality for a dynamic microworld, Proportions Playground, designed to support teachers in developing a coherent understanding of proportional reasoning. Proportions Playground is conceptualized as a tool for supporting the development of coherent understandings by allowing teachers to interact in concrete ways with otherwise abstract ideas and by allowing teachers easy access to dynamic objects and other representations. It is meant to address the significant limitations for reasoning about the relationships between measurable aspects of two objects as well as in manipulating those relationships. Building from work currently underway, Proportions Playground will explore key areas in which there are opportunities for engaging teachers in the development of a coherent and robust understanding of proportional reasoning that extends beyond the typical "3 given, 1 unknown" proportion problem. This approach attempts to engage teachers in an array of dynamic, visually-rich sets of tasks designed to challenge teachers' preconceptions of proportions and to strengthen their connections between proportions and related areas of mathematics. This project is funded by the Discovery Research PreK-12 (DRK-12) and EHR Core Research (ECR) Programs. the DRK-12 program supports research and development on STEM education innovations and approaches to teaching, learning, and assessment. The ECR program emphasizes fundamental STEM education research that generates foundational knowledge in the field.

The Proportions Playground project seeks to both develop a unique pilot software application for the iPad and explore how it supports teachers in developing a coherent, robust definition of proportions. The software will be designed to support either numeric manipulation (e.g., graphing software) or geometric constructions (e.g., dynamic geometry software). Specifically, for this project the mathematics of interest will include the relationships between similarity and proportion and the nature of covariation. The research will focus on how teachers are developing a robust and coherent understanding of proportions and how the dynamic environment promotes such understandings. Working with six teacher advisors, the project will develop three task sets. Using teaching experiments and individual interviews, results will be used to refine the task sets. The revised task sets will be piloted with 40 teachers. Data will be collected on participants' thinking and any changes seen in the knowledge resources they are using. The researchers will be looking for factors that seem to impact teachers' thinking as well as evidence to support or deny the assertion that the Proportions Playground activities engage teachers in (a) different ways of reasoning about proportions and (b) support them in drawing from a wide array of resources so that coherence may be developed were the teachers to have a prolonged engagement with the tools. The project will rely on Epistemic Network Analysis to identify the connections between knowledge resources.

Proportions Playground: A Dynamic World to Support Teachers' Proportional Reasoning

Understanding and Improving Learning from Online Mathematics Classroom Videos

The purpose of this project is to investigate issues in the design and implementation of effective virtual learning communities (VLCs) for teachers and to examine the relation between teachers' reflective engagement with VLCs and their students' mathematics learning outcomes. Findings from this project will be used to build and share effective ways to support teacher learning online.

Award Number: 
1621253
Funding Period: 
Mon, 08/15/2016 - Fri, 07/31/2020
Full Description: 

U.S. elementary teachers face many challenges. They are asked to teach all subjects to students with different needs and abilities. To do this well, they need good professional learning opportunities. Many teachers look online for such opportunities, but little is known about the quality of those opportunities and how they can be improved to help teachers meet their challenges. The goals of this project are to learn more about how teachers use one popular website for elementary mathematics teachers and how this website and similar ones can be adapted to better support teacher learning. Specifically, the project will (1) interview teachers about their use of the website, (2) investigate how to improve the ways teachers interact with video resources on the site by testing different ways of guiding their attention, and (3) examine how teachers' interactions with these video resources are related to their students' learning of mathematics. Findings from this project will be used to build and share effective ways to support teacher learning online. The project will thus benefit teachers who use the popular website, teachers who use similar websites, researchers who study how teachers learn from such websites, and the students of teachers who learn from such websites.

Video-based learning has been the focus of much professional development research over the past decade. As video-based learning has been found to be effective, many professional developers have taken this learning to scale through the online space. A number of high profile and popular virtual learning communities (VLCs) have emerged to allow teachers to interact with video, but the scant number of studies on the effectiveness of such VLCs show some difficulties in engaging teachers in sustained, reflective professional learning. The purpose of this project is to investigate several major issues in the design and implementation of effective VLCs for teachers and to examine the relation between teachers' reflective engagement with VLCs and their students' mathematics learning outcomes. The investigators propose 3 studies, which build on each other, to address these issues. This project will (1) interview teachers who are members of a popular VLC, to investigate what they learn and how they contribute to community; (2) investigate conditions that impact the posting of reflective commentary about video cases through iterative experiments, as reflective commentary has the potential to build community and to support teacher learning; and (3) investigate the relation between reflective reactions to video cases and student mathematics outcomes. Through these investigations, this project will explore issues that impact the scalability of teachers learning asynchronously from online video. Results will be used to develop guided pathways - a prototype of an innovation that will be based on the results from the research - on one widely used VLC. Thus, this project will provide both a contribution to the field of STEM teacher education research and an immediate, research-based product that can be disseminated to thousands of teachers through an existing VLC.

Understanding and Improving Learning from Online Mathematics Classroom Videos

Connected Biology: Three-Dimensional Learning from Molecules to Populations (Collaborative Research: Reichsman)

This project will design, develop, and examine the learning outcomes of a new curriculum unit for biology that embodies the conceptual framework of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The curriculum materials to be developed by this project will focus on two areas of study that are central to the life sciences: genetics and the processes of evolution by natural selection.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1620910
Funding Period: 
Sat, 10/01/2016 - Wed, 09/30/2020
Full Description: 

This project will contribute to this mission by designing, developing, and examining the learning outcomes of a new curriculum unit for biology that embodies the conceptual framework of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The curriculum materials to be developed by this project will focus on two areas of study that are central to the life sciences: genetics and the processes of evolution by natural selection. These traditionally separate topics will be interlinked and will be designed to engage students in the disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and the science and engineering practices defined by the NGSS. Once developed, the curriculum materials will be available online for use in high school biology courses nationwide.

This project will be guided by two main research questions: 1) How does learning progress when students experience a set of coherent biology learning materials that employ the principles of three-dimensional learning?; and 2) How do students' abilities to transfer understanding about the relationships between molecules, cells, organisms, and evolution change over time and from one biological phenomenon to another? The project will follow an iterative development plan involving cycles of designing, developing, testing and refining elements of the new curricular model. The project team will work with master teachers to design learning sequences that use six case studies to provide examples of how genetic and evolutionary processes are interlinked. An online data exploration environment will extend learning by enabling students to simulate phenomena being studied and explore data from multiple experimental trials as they seek patterns and construct cause-and-effect explanations of phenomena. Student learning will be measured using a variety of assessment tools, including multiple-choice assessment of student understanding, surveys, classroom observations and interviews, and embedded assessments and log files from the online learning environment.

Connected Biology: Three-Dimensional Learning from Molecules to Populations (Collaborative Research: Reichsman)

Connected Biology: Three-Dimensional Learning from Molecules to Populations (Collaborative Research: White)

This project will design, develop, and examine the learning outcomes of a new curriculum unit for biology that embodies the conceptual framework of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The curriculum materials to be developed by this project will focus on two areas of study that are central to the life sciences: genetics and the processes of evolution by natural selection.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1620746
Funding Period: 
Sat, 10/01/2016 - Wed, 09/30/2020
Full Description: 

This project will contribute to this mission by designing, developing, and examining the learning outcomes of a new curriculum unit for biology that embodies the conceptual framework of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The curriculum materials to be developed by this project will focus on two areas of study that are central to the life sciences: genetics and the processes of evolution by natural selection. These traditionally separate topics will be interlinked and will be designed to engage students in the disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and the science and engineering practices defined by the NGSS. Once developed, the curriculum materials will be available online for use in high school biology courses nationwide.

This project will be guided by two main research questions: 1) How does learning progress when students experience a set of coherent biology learning materials that employ the principles of three-dimensional learning?; and 2) How do students' abilities to transfer understanding about the relationships between molecules, cells, organisms, and evolution change over time and from one biological phenomenon to another? The project will follow an iterative development plan involving cycles of designing, developing, testing and refining elements of the new curricular model. The project team will work with master teachers to design learning sequences that use six case studies to provide examples of how genetic and evolutionary processes are interlinked. An online data exploration environment will extend learning by enabling students to simulate phenomena being studied and explore data from multiple experimental trials as they seek patterns and construct cause-and-effect explanations of phenomena. Student learning will be measured using a variety of assessment tools, including multiple-choice assessment of student understanding, surveys, classroom observations and interviews, and embedded assessments and log files from the online learning environment.

Connected Biology: Three-Dimensional Learning from Molecules to Populations (Collaborative Research: White)

Developing Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ability to Facilitate Goal-Oriented Discussions in Science and Mathematics via the Use of Simulated Classroom Interactions

The project will develop, pilot, and validate eight discussion-oriented performance tasks that will be embedded in an online simulated classroom environment. The resulting research and development products could be used nationwide in teacher preparation and professional development settings to assess and develop teachers' ability to support classroom discussion in science and mathematics.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1621344
Funding Period: 
Mon, 08/01/2016 - Fri, 07/31/2020
Full Description: 

There is widespread recognition in educational literatures that academic discourse is important for supporting students' developing understanding in the disciplines of science and mathematics. College and career-ready standards also call for attention to supporting students' learning of how to think and communicate like disciplinary experts. The teaching practice of orchestrating classroom discussion is intended to support students in obtaining higher levels of academic achievement but also to support students' participation in a democratic society. However, research has found that teachers--particularly novice teachers--struggle to orchestrate discussion effectively for science and mathematics. The investigators of this project hypothesize that opportunities to 1) practice orchestrating discussions in simulated classroom environments; 2) receive constructive feedback on their practice; and 3) reflect on that feedback and their experiences with peers and teacher educators, develops preservice teachers' abilities to lead productive classroom discussion. This may allow them to be more effective at orchestrating discussion when they begin teaching real students in science and mathematics classrooms. The project team, which includes investigators from Educational Testing Service (ETS) and software engineers at Mursion, will develop, pilot, and validate eight discussion-oriented performance tasks that will be embedded in an online simulated classroom environment. The resulting research and development products could be used nationwide in teacher preparation and professional development settings to assess and develop teachers' ability to support classroom discussion in science and mathematics.

The Discovery Research K-12 (DRK-12) program seeks to significantly enhance the learning and teaching of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) by preK-12 students and teachers, through research and development of innovative resources, models, and tools. Projects in the DRK-12 program build on fundamental research in STEM education and prior research and development efforts that provide theoretical and empirical justification for proposed projects. This Early Stage Design and Development project will 1) iteratively develop, pilot, and refine eight science and mathematics discussion-oriented performance tasks (six formative, two summative), scoring rubrics, and rater training materials; 2) deploy the intervention in four university sites, collecting data from 240 prospective teachers in both treatment and business-as-usual courses; and 3) use data analyses and expert review to build a five-part argument for the validity of the assessment and scoring rubrics. Data sources include prospective teachers' background and demographic information, cognitive interviews, surveys, scores on content knowledge for teaching (CKT) instruments, performance and scores on the developed performance tasks, discussion scores on Danielson's Framework for Teaching observation protocol, and case study interviews with prospective teachers. The project team will also conduct interviews with teacher educators and observe classroom debrief sessions with prospective teachers and their teacher educators. The research will examine each teacher's scores on two summative performance tasks administered pre- and post-intervention and will look for evidence of growth across three formative tasks. Linear regression models will be used to understand relationships among teachers' CKT scores, pre-intervention performance task scores, group assignment, and post-intervention performance task scores. A grounded theory approach to coding qualitative data of 24 case study teachers, observations of debrief sessions, and interviews with teacher educators will generate descriptive use cases, illustrating how the tools can support prospective teachers in learning how to facilitate discussions focused on science and mathematics argumentation. Mursion will develop a webpage on its website dedicated to this project that will allow the team to post the new performance-based tasks, scoring rubrics, and examples of performance in the simulated environment for teacher educators, educational researchers, and policy makers and collect feedback from them that can be used as another information source for refining tools and their use. Research findings will also be disseminated by more traditional means, such as papers in peer-reviewed research and practitioner journals and conference presentations.

Developing Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ability to Facilitate Goal-Oriented Discussions in Science and Mathematics via the Use of Simulated Classroom Interactions

Playing with the Data: Developing Digital Supports for Middle School Science Teachers using Game-based Formative Assessment

This project will use cycles of design-based research to build new knowledge about how to facilitate teachers' interpretation and use of digital game-based formative assessment data. The research will also inform the revision and expansion of Playfully, an existing, online data-reporting dashboard that can be used with multiple digital games.

Award Number: 
1503255
Funding Period: 
Wed, 07/01/2015 - Sat, 06/30/2018
Full Description: 

The Discovery Research K-12 program (DRK-12) seeks to significantly enhance the learning and teaching of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) by preK-12 students and teachers, through research and development of innovative resources, models and tools (RMTs). Projects in the DRK-12 program build on fundamental research in STEM education and prior research and development efforts that provide theoretical and empirical justification for proposed projects.

This project will use cycles of design-based research to build new knowledge about how to facilitate teachers' interpretation and use of digital game-based formative assessment data. The research will also inform the revision and expansion of Playfully, an existing, online data-reporting dashboard that can be used with multiple digital games. The project is a collaboration between researchers at Education Development Center Inc.'s Center for Children and Technology (EDC|CCT) and the assessment and game development teams at GlassLab. The research and development teams will engage in a three-year partnership with 60 middle-grade science teachers working in diverse school settings in different parts of the country. The aim of the project is to refine an online formative assessment platform that utilizes data from a video game designed to teach argumentation at the middle school level. It provides rigorous research on the design features of data tools and associated materials available to teachers to inform their ongoing instruction (i.e., formative assessment tools) when using game-based platforms.

Dissemination of the results of this project will include practical, evidence-based suggestions for supporting middle school science teachers' use of digital games for assessment, and for the design and implementation of data dashboards. Key audiences include educational game designers, game-based assessment developers, formative assessment experts, and leaders in middle grade science teaching and learning.

Playing with the Data: Developing Digital Supports for Middle School Science Teachers using Game-based Formative Assessment

Zoombinis: The Full Development Implementation Research Study of a Computational Thinking Game for Upper Elementary and Middle School Learners

This project leverages an existing game by embedding tools for studying patterns of students' decision-making and problem solving in the environment. This allows researchers to understand how students learn about computational thinking within a tool that bridges informal and formal learning settings to engage a wide variety of students. The project will also develop tools and resources for classroom teachers.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1502882
Funding Period: 
Wed, 07/15/2015 - Sat, 06/30/2018
Full Description: 

The Logical Journey of the Zoombinis implementation research study examines the development of computational thinking for upper elementary and middle grades students. Computational thinking is the set of ideas and practices considered vital for computer science skills and has been attracting increased attention over the past several years in K-12 education. This project leverages an existing game by embedding tools for studying patterns of students' decision-making and problem solving in the environment. This allows researchers to understand how students learn about computational thinking within a tool that bridges informal and formal learning settings to engage a wide variety of students. The project will also develop tools and resources for classroom teachers. The Discovery Research K-12 program (DRK-12) seeks to significantly enhance the learning and teaching of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) by preK-12 students and teachers, through research and development of innovative resources, models and tools (RMTs). Projects in the DRK-12 program build on fundamental research in STEM education and prior research and development efforts that provide theoretical and empirical justification for proposed projects.

The research examines three questions. First, what strategies do players develop during Zoombinis gameplay that may provide evidence of implicit computational thinking? Second, how can teachers leverage implicit knowledge of computational thinking developed in Zoombinis to improve formal (explicit) learning? Third, how can a large-scale commercial game be used for broad and equitable improvement of computational thinking? The research uses and develops educational data mining techniques to assess students' learning in conjunction with pre-post computational thinking assessments (external to the game), teacher interviews, classroom observations, and case studies of classroom use. The goal is to understand both students' learning of computational thinking and how to bridge the formal and informal learning via classroom implementation of the Zoombinis game.

Zoombinis: The Full Development Implementation Research Study of a Computational Thinking Game for Upper Elementary and Middle School Learners

SimScientists Games: Development of Simulation-Based Game Designs to Enhance Formative Assessment and Deep Science Learning in Middle School

This project will focus on understanding how educational games, designed according to research-based learning and assessment design principles, can better assess and promote students' science knowledge, application of science process skills, and motivation and engagement in learning.

Lead Organization(s): 
Award Number: 
1503481
Funding Period: 
Sat, 08/01/2015 - Wed, 07/31/2019
Full Description: 

The Discovery Research K-12 (DRK-12) program seeks to significantly enhance the learning and teaching of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by preK-12 students and teachers through research and development of innovative resources, models, and tools. Projects in the DRK-12 program build on fundamental research in STEM education and prior research and development efforts that provide theoretical and empirical justification for proposed projects. This project is a four-year design and development study submitted to the assessment strand of the program. It will focus on understanding how educational games, designed according to research-based learning and assessment design principles, can better assess and promote students' science knowledge, application of science process skills, and motivation and engagement in learning. The project will develop a new genre of games to serve as formative assessment resources designed to collect evidence of science learning during gameplay, provide feedback and coaching in the form of hints, and reinforce middle grade (6th-8th) students' life science concepts and investigation practices about ecosystems described in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (Achieve, 2013). The games will build on the designs of the simulation-based, curriculum-embedded assessments developed in previous NSF-funded efforts, which include student progress reports and reflection activities that allow teachers to provide feedback to students and adjust instruction. The design of the games will draw from multiple lines of research, such as cognition, particularly model-based learning; principled assessment design; and motivation. Intended to provide engaging activities for understanding and investigating the system components, roles, interactions, and population dynamics of ecosystems, the project will produce two sets of comprehensive games: (1) Organisms and Interactions, and (2) Emergent Population Levels: Managing an Ecosystem. Each game will consist of progressively advanced mini-games. Twenty-four California Bay Area middle school teachers will participate in the study. Teacher professional development (PD) will include face-to-face sessions and an online platform that permits a wide range of interactions among participants and the facilitators. The PD will emphasize the alignment of the ecosystem simulation-based curriculum modules with their state standards, instructional materials, and the new games.

The project will address six research questions: (1) How well do the games align with the ecosystem crosscutting concepts, core ideas, and inquiry practices in the NGSS?; (2) How well do game components meet quality standards?; (3) How well do the games integrate with the existing simulation-based curriculum modules and the teachers' existing instructional sequence?; (4) What effect does the use of the games have on students' understanding of the science concepts, scientific practices, and collaboration skills?; (5) How does success in gameplay relate to improved performance on the external outcome measures comprised of the simulation-based benchmark and the pre/posttest?; and (6) How does the use of the games affect students' engagement in science learning? In a Year 1 usability study, the project will test, analyze, and revise alpha versions of the games. In Year 2, a classroom feasibility study of beta versions will inform further revisions. In Year 3, six teachers will pilot-test the games. A second pilot test in Year 4 will examine the effectiveness of the games by comparing student performance in classes using the existing simulation-based curriculum-embedded assessments and reflection activities with classes using the curriculum-embedded assessments plus the new games. Data collection and analysis strategies include: (a) alignment reviews; (b) focus groups and usability testing; (c) cognitive labs for construct validity and usability; (d) game reports (badges); (e) pre/posttest of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) items; (f) benchmark assessment data; (g) student interest in the games and science; (h) teacher surveys; (i) case studies; (j) game quality analysis; (k) differential item functioning; (l) analysis of covariance; and (m) analysis of variance on posttest scores (outcome variable) to compare the means across student groups (by intervention mode) and their prior science achievement levels.

SimScientists Games: Development of Simulation-Based Game Designs to Enhance Formative Assessment and Deep Science Learning in Middle School
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